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AMP, adenosine monophosphate, contains adenine, a ribose sugar and one phosphate group. It is formed from the hydrolysis of ATP:  ATP + H20 ↔ AMP + PPi, using the enzyme adenylate kinase in a reversible reaction: 2ADP ↔ ATP + AMP, and by the hydrolysis of ADP:

ADP + H20 ↔ AMP + Pi [1]

AMP is used in regulating the activity of the glutamine synthease enzyme. The addition of AMP to a certain Tyrosine residue via a phosphodiester bond makes the enzyme less active. [2]

When catabolism of AMP molecules occur, it degrades first to Xanthine then Urate for excretion, utilising many different enzymes in a complicated process.[3]

The enzyme adenylate cyclase can convert ATP into cAMP, regulated by the hormones adrenaline or glucagon, in certain cells.[4]

  1. Biochemistry, 4th ed., Berg et al, p:412.
  2. Biochemistry, 4th ed., Berg et al, p:699.
  3. Biochemistry, 4th ed., Berg et al, p:725.
  4. Molecular Biology of The Cell, 5th ed., Alberts et al, p:905-909.
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