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Biofilms is a slimy layer that rich in polymers and usually site of microbes infection on the solid surface. The layer can developt on both biological and abiological surface such as respiratory tract and stones or rocks respectively. The continuous flows of nutrients provide the favorable condition for the microbes, specifically the pathogenic one to attach and divide into colonies. In order to regulate its stability, they will release polysaccharides, proteins and DNA into its environment. The free gene in DNA potentially being transfer to another species in the biofilms which then increase the risk of developing high resistance strain. Extracellular matrix of biofilms capable in shielding the colonies from host defence mechanisms and from the action of antibiotics, allowing the microbes to further colonise the host and become the source of infection for other parts of the body[1].


  1. Willey, Sherwood, Woolverton. (2008) Prescott, Harley and Klein’s MICROBIOLOGY, 7th edition, New York: McGraw Hill Companies.
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