Haemolytic anaemia

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Haemolytic anaemia is a condition where haemolytic levels exceed erythrocyte production in the bone marrow, thereby resulting in anaemia[1].



There are intrinsic and extrinsic causes that may result in haemolytic anaemia:


  1. Defects in erythrocyte membranes[2]
  2. Defects in haemoglobin[3]
  3. Defects in erythrocyte metabolic pathways[4]


  1. Immune-mediated causes such as autoimmune haemolytic anaemia[5]
  2. Lead poisoning[6]
  3. Runners' macrocytosis (enlargement of red blood cells with near-constant haemoglobin concentration)[7]


  1. Valent P, Lechner K. Diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune haemolytic anaemias in adults: a clinical review. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. 2008 Mar 1;120(5-6):136-51.
  2. Gallagher PG. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 2013 Dec;60(6):1349.
  3. Forget BG, Bunn HF. Classification of the disorders of haemoglobin. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine. 2013 Feb 1;3(2):a011684.
  4. Jacobasch G, Rapoport SM. Hemolytic anaemias due to erythrocyte enzyme deficiencies. Molecular aspects of medicine. 1996 Apr 1;17(2):143-70.
  5. Gehrs BC, Friedberg RC. Autoimmune hemolytic anaemia. American journal of haematology. 2002 Apr 1;69(4):258-71.
  6. Valentine WN, Paglia DE, Fink K, Madokoro G. Lead poisoning: association with hemolytic anaemia, basophilic stippling, erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase deficiency, and intraerythrocytic accumulation of pyrimidines. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1976 Oct;58(4):926.
  7. Eichner ER. Runner's macrocytosis: a clue to footstrike hemolysis. Runner's anaemia as a benefit versus runner's hemolysis as a detriment. The American journal of medicine. 1985 Feb 1;78(2):321-5.
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