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Naproxen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) [1]. it is an analgesic drug [2] used to reduce pain and inflammation in conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, menstrual cramps and gout. It is also sometimes used in the treatment of Paget's disease of bone and Bartter syndrome [3]. A side effect of this drug, when taken orally, is intestinal ulceration and bleeding [4].


  1. Bond A.D. et al(2014), "Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system.", 1(5):328-337
  2. Giménez M et al, (2014), "Naproxen Effects on Brain Response to Painful Pressure Stimulation in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Single-dose Study", The Journal of Rheumatology [online], 41. Available at: [accessed 20.10.2014]
  3. National Institute of Health (2014) Naproxen. Available at: (last accessed 20.10.14)
  4. Blackler, R.W. et al (2014), "Hydrogen Sulfide Protects Against NSAID-Enteropathy Through Modulation of Bile and the Microbiota", British Journal of Pharmacology [online] 171. Available at: [accessed 20.10.2014]
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