Neurones

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Neurones are specialised cells that conduct nerve impulses as tiny electrical signals[1]. There are three different functional types of neurone:

The sensory (afferent) neurone can be subdivided into pseudo-unipolar and bipolar neurones. Pseudo-unipolar has an offset cell body and an axon that immediately splits into two. The neurone is myelinated to ensure faster propagation of action potential down the axon. Pseudo-unipolar is used in the somatic senses. Bipolar sensory neurones are used for smell and vision, the cell body is situated in the middle of the neurone with two axons forming from either side of the cell body.

The motor (efferent) neurone which has the classic neurone structure; it is composed of a myelinated neurone that has large cell body at one end and axon terminal at the other. Motor neurones form synapses with effectors such as muscles or glands in order to control our response to internal or external stimuli.

The intermediate neurones of the CNS are commonly found in the brain. Due to the large amount of information received from sensory receptors they have a large dendritic tree which forms many synaptic connections. Both motor and interneurons of the CNS are multipolar.

Reference

  1. Microglia Sculpt Postnatal Neural Circuits in an Activity and Complement-Dependent Manner. Volume 74, Issue 4, May 2012, Pages 691-705
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