Plant cell

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Plant cells are eukaryotic. Like all eukaryotes they have membrane bound organelles and a nucleus. Unlike mamaliam eukaryotes, they also contain a cell wall and chloroplast, the latter to allow for photosynthesis to occur. The ability for the plant cell to undergo photosynthesis enables them to be producers; harnessing the energy from the sun and converting it into energy sustains the tropic levels which the producer provides for. 

Contents

Nucleus 

The nucleus in a plant cell contains the genetic information that codes for the produciton of polypeptides that either directly or indirectly control metabolic pathways in the cell to enable it to live. Like in all eukaryotes, DNA is found in the linear form of chromosomes. Plant cells can be diploid, tetraploid, etc. and are both asexual and sexually reproducing organisms. The sex organs of flowering plants are the stamen (males) and the pistil (females); the stamen of the flower produces the haploid (or diploid if mother cell is tetraploid) daughter gamete in the form of pollen that originates in the anther.

Coniferous plants use cones and gametangia use gametangium as sex organs. Asexual reproduction the plant cells use simple mitosis.

Vacuole

The vacuole of the plant cell is used minorly as a food storage and intracellular digestion, but is majorly used for maintaining turgor pressure to prevent wilting; the vacuole is enclosed by a membrane known as the tonoplast. This is done by utilising the low osmotic potential of the vacuole because of a high concentration of solutes. Water thus moves into the vacuole via osmosis from the cytoplasm and becomes turgid, pressing on the cell wall of the cell and making the cell itself turgid and keeping the plant erect.

Cell Wall

The plant cell wall is composed of Cellulose, which is a polysaccharide made from a chain series of beta-glucose with 1,4-glycosidic bond. The plant cell wall offers structural protection to the cell itself. This differs to the cell walls of other eukaryotes such as fungi as their cell walls are made of chitin; bacteria also differ in this way, their cell walls being made from peptidoglycan.[1]

Photosynthesis

Plant cells are autotrophic, this means that they have the ability produce its own complex organic molecules from simple inorganic compounds present in its environment. In the case of photosynthesis sunlight energy is converted into chemical energy stored in sugar molecules - it is able to do so because of the pigment chlorophyl (which gives plants their green colour)[2]. The process is can be explained using the following chemical equation: 

6H2O + 6CO2 -----> C6H12O6 + 6O2

References

  1. Wikipedia: Plant cellfckLRhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_cellfckLRdate: 15/11/15
  2. PhotosynthesisfckLRhttp://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.htmlfckLRdate: 15/11/15
 
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