1,4 glycosidic bond

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Alpha and Beta Glycosidic Bonds.png
1,4 glycosidic bond bonds are formed due to condensation reactions between a hydroxyl oxygen atom on carbon-4 on one sugar and the α-anomeric form of C-1 on the other[1].

The two monosaccharides (monomers, a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer) form a disaccharide (2 monomers bound together) and subsequently a polysaccharide (polymers, or many units of sugars). A condensation reaction is when water is eliminated to form a simple molecule. Later hydrolysis by water molecules will reform the two original monosaccharides.

The 1,4 glycosidic bond is formed between the carbon-1 of one monosaccharide and carbon-4 of the other monosaccharide. There are are two types of glycosidic bonds - 1,4 alpha and 1,4 beta glycosidic bonds. 1,4 alpha glycosidic bonds are formed when the OH on the carbon-1 is below the glucose ring; while 1,4 beta glycosidic bonds are formed when the OH is above the plane[2]. When two alpha D-glucose molecules join together a more commonly occurring isomer of glucose compared to the L-glucose, form a glycosidic linkage, the term is known as a α-1,4-glycosidic bond[3].


  1. Biochemistry. 5th edition.erg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. New York: W H Freeman; 2002 - Section 11.2Complex Carbohydrates Are Formed by Linkage of Monosaccharides https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22396/
  2. Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymoczko, Lubert Stryer. Biochemistry Seventh Edition Freeman
  3. Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman; 2002. Section 11.2, Complex Carbohydrates Are Formed by Linkage of Monosaccharides. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22396/
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