9+2 arrangement

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&nbsp;The 9 + 2 arrangement refers to how the [[Microtubules|microtubules]] are organised in structures such as the [[Flagella|flagella]] and [[Cilia|cilia]]. It has 9 pairs of microtubules situated on the outside that are bound together and 2 pairs of microtubules in the middle that are not bound together<ref>The Biology project. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics. Cytoskeleton Tutorial. September 1997 [cited 03/12/18]fckLRAvailable from: http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/cytoskeleton/page2.html</ref>. Attached to these doublet pairs, consisting of both microtubules in a fused pair, are dynein arms. These are motor proteins that create mechanical work energy from chemical energy aquired from [[ATP hydrolysis|ATP hydrolysis]] enabling movement along microtubules<ref>Stephen M. King. Axonemal Dynein Arms. August 15, 2016 [cited 03/12/18]fckLRAvailable from: https://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/8/11/a028100.full</ref>.<sup></sup>
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The 9 + 2 arrangement refers to how the [[Microtubules|microtubules]] are organised in structures such as the [[Flagella|flagella]] and [[Cilia|cilia]]. It has 9 pairs of microtubules situated on the outside that are bound together and 2 pairs of microtubules in the middle that are not bound together<ref>The Biology project. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics. Cytoskeleton Tutorial. September 1997 [cited 03/12/18] Available from: http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/cytoskeleton/page2.html</ref>. Attached to these doublet pairs, consisting of both microtubules in a fused pair, are [[dynein|dynein]] arms. These are motor proteins that create mechanical work energy from chemical energy acquired from [[ATP hydrolysis|ATP hydrolysis]] enabling movement along microtubules<ref>Stephen M. King. Axonemal Dynein Arms. August 15, 2016 [cited 03/12/18] Available from: https://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/8/11/a028100.full</ref>.  
  
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=== References  ===
 
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=== '''References''' ===
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Latest revision as of 07:52, 4 December 2018

The 9 + 2 arrangement refers to how the microtubules are organised in structures such as the flagella and cilia. It has 9 pairs of microtubules situated on the outside that are bound together and 2 pairs of microtubules in the middle that are not bound together[1]. Attached to these doublet pairs, consisting of both microtubules in a fused pair, are dynein arms. These are motor proteins that create mechanical work energy from chemical energy acquired from ATP hydrolysis enabling movement along microtubules[2].

References

  1. The Biology project. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics. Cytoskeleton Tutorial. September 1997 [cited 03/12/18] Available from: http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/cytoskeleton/page2.html
  2. Stephen M. King. Axonemal Dynein Arms. August 15, 2016 [cited 03/12/18] Available from: https://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/8/11/a028100.full
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