ADP ribose

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 ADP ribose is a molecule formed via the recation of a ribose molecule with the terminal phosphate group of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)[1]. 2 or more ADP ribose subunits may then in turn join together to form what is known as poly(ADP-ribose) which is often abbreviated to PAR[2]. The bonding between ADP ribose subunits usually forms between the ribose group of one of the subunits and the adenosine group of an adjacent ADP ribose molecule[3]. The polymerisation of ADP ribose is mediated by enzymes called PAR polymerases (PARPs)[4]

One of the main functions assocaited with PAR is the repair of damaged or mutagenic DNA. When damaged DNA is detected, PARPs are activated very quickly[5]. The activated PARPs are able to bind to single stranded regions of DNA and in turn add PAR residues to histone molecules associated with DNA[6]. This is believed to aid both repair and transcription of DNA. However, evidence on the direct role of the ADP ribose-histone complex is limmited and therefore most of the focus in recent research has surrounded the modifying enzymes associated with the ADP ribosylation of histones[7].










Referecnes

  1. PubChem - open chemistry database ADP ribose Created 2005-06-08 last edited 2018-12-01 Accessed 3/12/18 Available from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/ADP_Ribose#section=Top
  2. Journal of cell biology Poly(ADP-ribose): An organizer of cellular architecture Published on 09/07/2014 Accessed on 03/12/2018 Available from http://jcb.rupress.org/content/205/5/613
  3. Journal of cell biology Poly(ADP-ribose): An organizer of cellular architecture Published on 09/06/2014 Accessed on 03/12/2018 Available from http://jcb.rupress.org/content/205/5/613
  4. Nature reviews - molecular cell biology Valérie Schreiber, Françoise Dantzer, Jean-Christophe Ame & Gilbert de Murcia Published 01/07/2006 Accessed 03/12/2018 https://www.nature.com/articles/nrm1963
  5. Nucleic acid research Claudia Flohr, Alexander Bürkle, J. Pablo Radicella, and Bernd Epe Published 15/09/2003 Accessed 03/12/2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC203308/
  6. Nucleic acid research Claudia Flohr, Alexander Bürkle, J. Pablo Radicella, and Bernd Epe Published 15/09/2003 Accessed 03/12/2018 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC203308/
  7. Trends in cell biology Simon Messner and Michael O. Hottiger Published 01/09/2011 Accessed 03/12/18 https://www.cell.com/trends/cell-biology/pdf/S0962-8924(11)00106-1.pdf
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