Amiloride is a drug used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). It is a "potassium-sparing" diuretic that acts by blocking Enac (epithelial sodium channel) inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium by the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts within the kidneys. By doing this it promotes the excretion of sodium and water from the bloodstream, thereby reducing blood pressure.
Its chemical structure is detailed below:
Adverse side effects of the drug (amiloride hydrochloride) can become as severe as hyperkalemia, which can lead to cardiac arythmias. Should be given with caution to patients with impaired renal function, diabetes mellitus or the elderly. Amiloride's inhibition of Na+ in the distal tubule also results in reduced electrical potenial across the membrane which in turn leads to inhibition of passive K+ secretion.