Antibiotics

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 Antibiotics

Antibiotics are drugs which are used to treat infections. When they were first discovered they were thought to be a wonder drug that would eliminate all worldwide infection. However soon it was realized that the bacteria they were treating would develop resistance against them. This resistance can be either intrinsic or acquired resistance. Acquired resistance is when initially the antibiotics is effective at treating the infection although over time the bacteria develop resistance.[1] Intrinsic resistance is when the bacteria never respond to the antibiotics they have always had resistance. In response to the increase in antobiotics resistance new drugs keep being synthesized in an attempt to find new cures – however the amount of new effective antobiotics being found is rapidly decreasing.[2][3]

It was Alexander Fleming who discovered the first known antibiotics. This was in the 1920’s when he saw Staphylococci being inhibited by Penicillin. However discovering how to extract the penicillin and use it effectively did not occur until the 1940’s.[4]

There are two different types of antibiotics; bacterostatic and bactericidal. Bactereostatic prevent the development of any further infection, halting it and allowing the immune system to deal with the cells which are already infected. Bactereocidal on the other hand kill all of the bacteria present, ridding the body of any present infection.[5][6]


References

  1. H P Rang, M M Dale et al. (2007). Rang and Dale's Pharmacology. 7th ed. Spain: Elsevier. 609-37.
  2. Yassin, Dawson (2007). Pharmacology. 3rd ed. China: Mosby. p201-210.
  3. H P Rang, M M Dale et al. (2007). Rang and Dale's Pharmacology. 7th ed. Spain: Elsevier. 609-37.
  4. Yassin, Dawson (2007). Pharmacology. 3rd ed. China: Mosby. p201-210.
  5. Yassin, Dawson (2007). Pharmacology. 3rd ed. China: Mosby. p201-210.
  6. H P Rang, M M Dale et al. (2007). Rang and Dale's Pharmacology. 7th ed. Spain: Elsevier. 609-37.


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