Antibodies

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However, antibodies can also be produced when healthy [[Tissue|tissue]] is mistaken for a harmful substance by the [[Immune system|immune system]]. This is known as an [[Autoimmune disease|autoimmune disorder]]&nbsp;<ref>David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, and Stephanie Slon. (2012) Antibody.http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002223.htm (last accessed 19/11/14)</ref>.<br>  
 
However, antibodies can also be produced when healthy [[Tissue|tissue]] is mistaken for a harmful substance by the [[Immune system|immune system]]. This is known as an [[Autoimmune disease|autoimmune disorder]]&nbsp;<ref>David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, and Stephanie Slon. (2012) Antibody.http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002223.htm (last accessed 19/11/14)</ref>.<br>  
  
Antibody-antigen interactions can also explain certain processes such as the ABO blood group system.&nbsp;<ref>Weir, D. and Spencer, J. (1997) Immunology, 8th edition, page 7 New York: Churchill Livingstone</ref>
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Antibody-antigen interactions can also explain certain processes such as the ABO blood group system.&nbsp;<ref>Weir, D. and Spencer, J. (1997) Immunology, 8th edition, page 7 New York: Churchill Livingstone</ref>  
  
'''Structure of Antibodies&nbsp;'''  
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=== Structure of Antibodies'''&nbsp;''' ===
  
Antibodies are proteins composed of subunits of [[Amino acids|amino acids]]. The basis of the bivalent antibody molecule are four polypeptide chains, within which are two types, referred to as light (classed as either lamda or kappa) and heavy chain. The light chain is around 25 kDa,and the heavy chain is 50 kDa. The heavy chain is important as the class of the antibody is derived from its structure and there are five types. It is these heavy chains which enable antibdodies to be separated into the five classes of immunoglobins; IgG, IgA, IgD, IgM and IgE. The way in which the two heavy chains are connected to one another is though disulfide bonds, they are then connected to a light chain by disulfide bonds as well. This therefore creates two identical antigen-binding sites.<ref>Janeway CA, Shlomchik MJ, Travers P,&amp;amp;amp;nbsp;Walport M. Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease: 5th ed. New York, NY: Garland Science; 2001.</ref>  
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Antibodies are proteins composed of subunits of [[Amino acids|amino acids]]. The basis of the bivalent antibody molecule are four polypeptide chains, within which are two types, referred to as light (classed as either lamda or kappa) and heavy chain. The light chain is around 25 kDa,and the heavy chain is 50 kDa. The heavy chain is important as the class of the antibody is derived from its structure and there are five types. It is these heavy chains which enable antibdodies to be separated into the five classes of immunoglobins; IgG, IgA, IgD, IgM and IgE. The way in which the two heavy chains are connected to one another is though disulfide bonds, they are then connected to a light chain by disulfide bonds as well. This therefore creates two identical antigen-binding sites.<ref>Janeway CA, Shlomchik MJ, Travers P,&amp;amp;amp;amp;nbsp;Walport M. Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease: 5th ed. New York, NY: Garland Science; 2001.</ref>  
  
The regions of the heavy chain includes three constant domains, which are the same for all antibodies, and the one variable domain. The light chains are also composed of a constant domain and a variable domain. The variable regions of the antibodies are where the [[Antigen|antigen]] binding site is located and the constant domain is responsible for the outcome of the antigen.<ref>Fanger M, Lydyard P, Whelan A. Immunology: 3rd ed. New York, NY: Garland Science; 2011.</ref> The Fc region is the part of the antibody that binds to cell surface receptors on cells such as [[Macrophage|macrophages]]. Finally, the Fab region is primarily known as the location for the antigen binding site.&nbsp;<ref>Novimmune. Antibodies [Internet]. Geneva, Switzerland; Novimmune SA; 2015 [cited 2015 Nov 20]. Available from: http://www.novimmune.com/science/antibodies.html</ref>  
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The regions of the heavy chain includes three constant domains, which are the same for all antibodies, and the one variable domain. The light chains are also composed of a constant domain and a variable domain. The variable regions of the antibodies are where the [[Antigen|antigen]] binding site is located and the constant domain is responsible for the outcome of the antigen.<ref>Fanger M, Lydyard P, Whelan A. Immunology: 3rd ed. New York, NY: Garland Science; 2011.</ref> The Fc region is the part of the antibody that binds to cell surface receptors on cells such as [[Macrophage|macrophages]]. Finally, the Fab region is primarily known as the location for the antigen binding site.&nbsp;<ref>Novimmune. Antibodies [Internet]. Geneva, Switzerland; Novimmune SA; 2015 [cited 2015 Nov 20]. Available from: http://www.novimmune.com/science/antibodies.html</ref><br>  
  
<br>
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=== Origin of Antibodies'''&nbsp;'''  ===
  
'''Origin of Antibodies&nbsp;'''
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Antibodies are produced by plasma cells which have originated from B lymphocytes.&nbsp;<br>
  
Antibodies are produced by plasma cells which have originated from B lymphocytes.&nbsp;
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There is a complementary antibody to every antigen because of the variability in structure of the different classes and subclasses of antibodies.&nbsp;  
 
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There is a complementary antibody to every antigen because of the variability in structure of the different classes and subclasses of antibodies.&nbsp;
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=== References  ===
 
=== References  ===
  
 
<references /><br>
 
<references /><br>

Revision as of 06:26, 4 December 2015

An antibody, otherwise known as an immunoglobin, is a Y-shaped protein produced by the body's immune system when foreign objects are detected.The antibody recognises a specific site on the foreign target called antigens.

The antibody then binds to the antigens in order to remove them from the body. A wide range of substances are regarded as antigens, such as toxic materials like insect venom [1].

However, antibodies can also be produced when healthy tissue is mistaken for a harmful substance by the immune system. This is known as an autoimmune disorder [2].

Antibody-antigen interactions can also explain certain processes such as the ABO blood group system. [3]

Structure of Antibodies 

Antibodies are proteins composed of subunits of amino acids. The basis of the bivalent antibody molecule are four polypeptide chains, within which are two types, referred to as light (classed as either lamda or kappa) and heavy chain. The light chain is around 25 kDa,and the heavy chain is 50 kDa. The heavy chain is important as the class of the antibody is derived from its structure and there are five types. It is these heavy chains which enable antibdodies to be separated into the five classes of immunoglobins; IgG, IgA, IgD, IgM and IgE. The way in which the two heavy chains are connected to one another is though disulfide bonds, they are then connected to a light chain by disulfide bonds as well. This therefore creates two identical antigen-binding sites.[4]

The regions of the heavy chain includes three constant domains, which are the same for all antibodies, and the one variable domain. The light chains are also composed of a constant domain and a variable domain. The variable regions of the antibodies are where the antigen binding site is located and the constant domain is responsible for the outcome of the antigen.[5] The Fc region is the part of the antibody that binds to cell surface receptors on cells such as macrophages. Finally, the Fab region is primarily known as the location for the antigen binding site. [6]

Origin of Antibodies 

Antibodies are produced by plasma cells which have originated from B lymphocytes. 

There is a complementary antibody to every antigen because of the variability in structure of the different classes and subclasses of antibodies. 

References

  1. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (2014) Antibody http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/27783/antibody (last accessed 19/11/14)
  2. David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, and Stephanie Slon. (2012) Antibody.http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002223.htm (last accessed 19/11/14)
  3. Weir, D. and Spencer, J. (1997) Immunology, 8th edition, page 7 New York: Churchill Livingstone
  4. Janeway CA, Shlomchik MJ, Travers P,&amp;amp;amp;nbsp;Walport M. Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease: 5th ed. New York, NY: Garland Science; 2001.
  5. Fanger M, Lydyard P, Whelan A. Immunology: 3rd ed. New York, NY: Garland Science; 2011.
  6. Novimmune. Antibodies [Internet]. Geneva, Switzerland; Novimmune SA; 2015 [cited 2015 Nov 20]. Available from: http://www.novimmune.com/science/antibodies.html

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