Atria

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The atria (singular atrium) are the upper chambers in the [[Heart|heart]].
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The atria (singular [[Atrium|atrium]]) are the upper chambers in the [[Heart|heart]], delivering blood to the [[Ventricles|ventricles]]. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from around the body through the superior and inferior [[Vena cavae|vena cavae]], whereas the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the [[Lungs|lungs]] through the [[Pulmonary veins|pulmonary veins]]<ref>http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBody/Blood/Heart_Structure.php</ref>.
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They have thin walls compared to ventricles, as the [[Blood|blood]] is only moving a short distance down to the ventricles, therefore little [[Muscle|muscle]] is needed compared to ventricles which pump the blood over larger distances<ref>Pocock G., Richards C. (2006) Human Physiology: The Basis of Medicine, 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press</ref>. Atria are involved in the first stages of the [[The Cardiovascular System|cardiovascular cycle]] mediated by the [[Sinoatrial Node|Sinoatrial Node]] ([[SAN|SAN]]). A wave of depolarization sweeps over the the atria causing them to contract, which forces blood from the atria into the ventricles. The SAN acts a pacemaker whereby it could generate [[Action_potential|action potential]] to control [[heart rate|heart rate]]<ref name="null">Quain, Jones. (1908) Quain's Elements of Anatomy, 4. London: Longmans, Green and Co.</ref>. This is essential as it marks the start of the electrical conduction of the [[Heart|heart]]<ref>Quain, Jones. (1908) Quain's Elements of Anatomy, 4. London: Longmans, Green and Co.</ref>.
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A human with atrium hole will result in disease such as Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) will have oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart.  
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=== References  ===
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<references />

Latest revision as of 17:31, 16 November 2017

The atria (singular atrium) are the upper chambers in the heart, delivering blood to the ventricles. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from around the body through the superior and inferior vena cavae, whereas the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through the pulmonary veins[1].

They have thin walls compared to ventricles, as the blood is only moving a short distance down to the ventricles, therefore little muscle is needed compared to ventricles which pump the blood over larger distances[2]. Atria are involved in the first stages of the cardiovascular cycle mediated by the Sinoatrial Node (SAN). A wave of depolarization sweeps over the the atria causing them to contract, which forces blood from the atria into the ventricles. The SAN acts a pacemaker whereby it could generate action potential to control heart rate[3]. This is essential as it marks the start of the electrical conduction of the heart[4].

A human with atrium hole will result in disease such as Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) will have oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart.

References

  1. http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBody/Blood/Heart_Structure.php
  2. Pocock G., Richards C. (2006) Human Physiology: The Basis of Medicine, 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press
  3. Quain, Jones. (1908) Quain's Elements of Anatomy, 4. London: Longmans, Green and Co.
  4. Quain, Jones. (1908) Quain's Elements of Anatomy, 4. London: Longmans, Green and Co.
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