Autonomic Nervous System

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The autonomic nervous system can be divided into the [[Sympathetic|sympathetic]] and [[Parasympathetic|parasympathetic]] systems which can be recognised according to the chemical neurotransmitters they use&nbsp;<ref>Silverthorn, D.U. (2010) Human Physiology an Integrated Approach (5th ed.) San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Page 249 and 386</ref>. The targets of autonomic neurones are [[Muscle|smooth muscle, cardiac muscle]], many [[Exocrine glands|exocrine glands]], a few [[Endocrine glands|endocrine glands]], [[Lymphoid tissues|lymphoid tissues and]] some [[Adipose tissue|adipose tissue]]&nbsp;<ref>Silverthorn, D.U. (2010) Human Physiology an Integrated Approach (5th ed.) San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Page 249 and 386</ref>. The autonomic system is important in the body as it maintains [[Homeostasis|homeostasis]]&nbsp;<ref>Silverthorn, D.U. (2010) Human Physiology an Integrated Approach (5th ed.) San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Page 387</ref>. <br>  
 
The autonomic nervous system can be divided into the [[Sympathetic|sympathetic]] and [[Parasympathetic|parasympathetic]] systems which can be recognised according to the chemical neurotransmitters they use&nbsp;<ref>Silverthorn, D.U. (2010) Human Physiology an Integrated Approach (5th ed.) San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Page 249 and 386</ref>. The targets of autonomic neurones are [[Muscle|smooth muscle, cardiac muscle]], many [[Exocrine glands|exocrine glands]], a few [[Endocrine glands|endocrine glands]], [[Lymphoid tissues|lymphoid tissues and]] some [[Adipose tissue|adipose tissue]]&nbsp;<ref>Silverthorn, D.U. (2010) Human Physiology an Integrated Approach (5th ed.) San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Page 249 and 386</ref>. The autonomic system is important in the body as it maintains [[Homeostasis|homeostasis]]&nbsp;<ref>Silverthorn, D.U. (2010) Human Physiology an Integrated Approach (5th ed.) San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Page 387</ref>. <br>  
  
The [[Autonomic Nervous System|autonomic nervous system]] is the portion of the nervous system that regulates and controls visceral functions such as heart rate, temperature regulation during [[Homeostasis|homeostasis]], digestion and [[Blood pressure|blood pressure]]. &nbsp;Although the autonomic nervous system is a functionally distinct system of its own it is composed of the central nevous system and the peripheral nervous system, the autonomic nervous system carries nerve impulses to glands, [[Muscle|smooth muscle]] and [[Muscle|cardiac muscle]] and is under involuntary, subconcious control. Visceral sub concious control is achieved by reflex arcs which is a nerve pathway in the body taken by an [[Action potential|action potential]] that leads to a rapid involuntary respoonse to a stimulus. The autonomic nervous system can be further sub divided into the sympathetic nervous system which stimulates effectors and so speeds up any activity, it acts like an emergency controller so helps the body cope with essful situations by heightening our awareness and preparing us for activity (fight or flight response). Also divided into the parasympathetic nervous system which inhibits effectors and so slows down any activity, it controls activities under normal resting conditions.&nbsp;<br>  
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The [[Autonomic_Nervous_System|autonomic nervous system]] is the portion of the nervous system that regulates and controls visceral functions such as heart rate, temperature regulation during [[Homeostasis|homeostasis]], digestion and [[Blood pressure|blood pressure]]. &nbsp;Although the autonomic nervous system is a functionally distinct system of its own it is composed of the central nevous system and the peripheral nervous system, the autonomic nervous system carries nerve impulses to glands, [[Muscle|smooth muscle]] and [[Muscle|cardiac muscle]] and is under involuntary, subconcious control. Visceral sub concious control is achieved by reflex arcs which is a nerve pathway in the body taken by an [[Action potential|action potential]] that leads to a rapid involuntary respoonse to a stimulus. The autonomic nervous system can be further sub divided into the sympathetic nervous system which stimulates effectors and so speeds up any activity, it acts like an emergency controller so helps the body cope with essful situations by heightening our awareness and preparing us for activity (fight or flight response). Also divided into the [[Parasympathetic_nervous_system|parasympathetic nervous system]] which inhibits effectors and so slows down any activity, it controls activities under normal resting conditions.&nbsp;<br>  
  
 
=== References<br>  ===
 
=== References<br>  ===
  
 
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Revision as of 16:33, 30 November 2015

The autonomic nervous system (also known as the visceral nervous system[1]) can be referred to as the vegetative nervous system[2] as its functions are not under voluntary control. It is part of the peripheral nervous system which consists of efferent neurones in which impulses from the central nervous system travel to their targets (usually muscles and glands) [3].

The autonomic nervous system can be divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems which can be recognised according to the chemical neurotransmitters they use [4]. The targets of autonomic neurones are smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, many exocrine glands, a few endocrine glands, lymphoid tissues and some adipose tissue [5]. The autonomic system is important in the body as it maintains homeostasis [6].

The autonomic nervous system is the portion of the nervous system that regulates and controls visceral functions such as heart rate, temperature regulation during homeostasis, digestion and blood pressure.  Although the autonomic nervous system is a functionally distinct system of its own it is composed of the central nevous system and the peripheral nervous system, the autonomic nervous system carries nerve impulses to glands, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle and is under involuntary, subconcious control. Visceral sub concious control is achieved by reflex arcs which is a nerve pathway in the body taken by an action potential that leads to a rapid involuntary respoonse to a stimulus. The autonomic nervous system can be further sub divided into the sympathetic nervous system which stimulates effectors and so speeds up any activity, it acts like an emergency controller so helps the body cope with essful situations by heightening our awareness and preparing us for activity (fight or flight response). Also divided into the parasympathetic nervous system which inhibits effectors and so slows down any activity, it controls activities under normal resting conditions. 

References

  1. Silverthorn, D.U. (2010) Human Physiology an Integrated Approach (5th ed.) San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Page 249
  2. Silverthorn, D.U. (2010) Human Physiology an Integrated Approach (5th ed.) San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Page 386
  3. Silverthorn, D.U. (2010) Human Physiology an Integrated Approach (5th ed.) San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Page 249
  4. Silverthorn, D.U. (2010) Human Physiology an Integrated Approach (5th ed.) San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Page 249 and 386
  5. Silverthorn, D.U. (2010) Human Physiology an Integrated Approach (5th ed.) San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Page 249 and 386
  6. Silverthorn, D.U. (2010) Human Physiology an Integrated Approach (5th ed.) San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Page 387
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