Axons are part of the specialised neuron cell that transmits electrical signals from the cell body to the axon terminal leading to the synapse, where the electrical signal turns into a chemical signal. The network of axons and dendrites allows complex signal pathways to occur simultaneously, together or independently. Microtubles fill the interior of the axon with the minus end at the cell body and the plus end at the axon terminals. The microtubules allow key protein structures, vesicles and mRNAs to be transported to the synaptic cleft. Just beneath the plasma membrane of the axon lies actin filaments which provide mechanical strength and transport mechanism to the cytoskeleton.
The speed at which the axon transmits electrical impulses depends on the diameter of the axon, the membrane resistance of the axon (how permeable the membrane of the axon is to an electrical signal, the lesser the permeability, the faster the speed of transmission) and the presence or absence of myelin sheath.