Bronchioles

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Bronchioles are a feature of the [[Respiratory system|respiratory system]] and branch from the [[Bronchi|Bronchi]], they are the smallest of the airways. [[Alveoli|Alveoli]] are found at the end of the bronchioles (this is where the gas exchange occurs).  
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Bronchioles are the smallest branch of the [[Respiratory system|respiratory system]]. They consist of larger bronchioles and terminal bronchioles, which are narrower, and lead directly to the [[Alveoli]] for gas exchange.  
  
 
=== Structure  ===
 
=== Structure  ===
  
Larger bronchioles have ciliated cells lining the [[Lumen|lumen]]. However, in smaller bronchioles, the [[Epithelium]] is not lined with ciliated [[Cells|cells]]<ref>University of Leeds Faculty of Biological Sciences, 2003. The Histology Guide: Bronchioles. Available at: http://www.histology.leeds.ac.uk/respiratory/conducting.php (Last accessed: 22.10.2015)</ref>.  
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Bronchioles are the first and only airway vessel in the [[Respiratory system|respiratory system]] not to contain glands or tissues other then [[Smooth muscle|smooth muscle]] and endothelial tissue. They are comprised of [[Smooth muscle cells]], [[Endothelial cell]]s, and in some cases bronchiolar exocrine cells. This is in part due to their extremely minimal size, having a diameter of only 0.5 - 1 mm. Even though they do not contain glands, some cells exist in the bronchioles to allow for the release of [[Surfactant|surfactant]]. These are the aforementioned bronchiolar exocrine cells, and are found in the highest proportion in the cells contacting [[Alveoli|alveoli]], as the [[Surfactant|surfactant]] is used to reduce the amount of surface tension in the alveoli<ref>Papadakos PJ, Burkhard Lachmann. Mechanical Ventilation: Clinical Applications and Pathophysiology. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Saunders Elsevier, 2008</ref>.  
  
 
=== Infection  ===
 
=== Infection  ===
  
The bronchioles are subject to many infections and diseases including Bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP) <ref>Pardo J, Panizo A, Sola I, Queipo F, Martinez-Peñuela A, Carias R.. (2013). Prognostic value of clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical factors in patients with bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia. Human pathology. 44 (5), 718-24</ref>.  
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The bronchioles are subject to many infections and diseases including Bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP)<ref>Pardo J, Panizo A, Sola I, Queipo F, Martinez-Peñuela A, Carias R.. (2013). Prognostic value of clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical factors in patients with bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia. Human pathology. 44 (5), 718-24</ref>.  
  
 
=== References  ===
 
=== References  ===
  
 
<references />
 
<references />

Latest revision as of 18:32, 23 October 2018

Bronchioles are the smallest branch of the respiratory system. They consist of larger bronchioles and terminal bronchioles, which are narrower, and lead directly to the Alveoli for gas exchange.

Structure

Bronchioles are the first and only airway vessel in the respiratory system not to contain glands or tissues other then smooth muscle and endothelial tissue. They are comprised of Smooth muscle cells, Endothelial cells, and in some cases bronchiolar exocrine cells. This is in part due to their extremely minimal size, having a diameter of only 0.5 - 1 mm. Even though they do not contain glands, some cells exist in the bronchioles to allow for the release of surfactant. These are the aforementioned bronchiolar exocrine cells, and are found in the highest proportion in the cells contacting alveoli, as the surfactant is used to reduce the amount of surface tension in the alveoli[1].

Infection

The bronchioles are subject to many infections and diseases including Bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP)[2].

References

  1. Papadakos PJ, Burkhard Lachmann. Mechanical Ventilation: Clinical Applications and Pathophysiology. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Saunders Elsevier, 2008
  2. Pardo J, Panizo A, Sola I, Queipo F, Martinez-Peñuela A, Carias R.. (2013). Prognostic value of clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical factors in patients with bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia. Human pathology. 44 (5), 718-24
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