Cardiac musle

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Cardiac muscle is one of the three types of [[Muscle|muscle]] in mammals. It is myogenic&nbsp;[[Striated muscle|striated muscle]] that forms the structure of the&nbsp;[[Heart|heart]].&nbsp;<span style="line-height: 19.9200000762939px;">Cardiac muscle contracts like skeletal muscle; the shortening of the sacromere causes the contraction on the muscle.<ref>Alberts, B. et al 'Molecular Biology of the Cell' Fifth Edition (2008) p.1031, Abingdon, Garland Science, Taylor &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Francis Group LLC</ref></span>
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Cardiac muscle is one of the three types of [[Muscle|muscle]] in mammals. It is myogenic [[Striated muscle|striated muscle]] that forms the structure of the [[Heart|heart]]. Cardiac muscle contracts like skeletal muscle; the shortening of the sarcomere causes the contraction on the muscle<ref>Alberts, B. et al 'Molecular Biology of the Cell' Fifth Edition (2008) p.1031, Abingdon, Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group LLC</ref>.
  
The structure of cardiac muscle are long, cylindrical cells with one, sometimes two, nuclei. They branch out into 'Y' shapes. There is a rich blood supply provided by the vast [[Capillary|capillary]] network. This is necessary due to the high level of energy required for the typical heart function. This capillary network is supported by connective tissue between these cardiac muscle fibres. There are also far more [[Mitochondria|mitochondria]] in cardiac muscle than typical skeletal muscle as the production of ATP is essential to cardiac muscle function, unlike most muscles in the body they are constantly contracting and relaxing thus requiring far more energy than in skeletal muscle.&nbsp;<ref>Lemieux H, Hoppel C. Mitochondria in the human heart. Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes [Internet]. 2009 [cited 3 December 2017];41(2):99-106. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19353253</ref>  
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The structure of cardiac muscle are long, cylindrical cells with one, sometimes two, nuclei. They branch out into 'Y' shapes. There is a rich blood supply provided by the vast [[Capillary|capillary]] network. This is necessary due to the high level of energy required for the typical heart function. This capillary network is supported by connective tissue between these cardiac muscle fibres. There are also far more [[Mitochondria|mitochondria]] in cardiac muscle than typical skeletal muscle as the production of ATP is essential to cardiac muscle function, unlike most muscles in the body they are constantly contracting and relaxing thus requiring far more energy than in skeletal muscle<ref>Lemieux H, Hoppel C. Mitochondria in the human heart. Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes [Internet]. 2009 [cited 3 December 2017];41(2):99-106. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19353253</ref>.
  
Between each cardiac muscle filament, there a intercalated discs found at the junction between cells. These discs are formed of&nbsp;[[Desmosomes|desmosomes]]&nbsp;and they hold the cells together over the [[Gap Junction|gap junctions]].This allows [[Action potentials|action potentials]] to move with lower resistance.&nbsp;<ref>Queen Margaret University (2012) 'Excitable Tissues' [Online] Available at http://www.qmu.ac.uk/hn/appliedscience/D%20Excitable%20Tissues/cardiac_muscle.htm [Accessed on 27/11/2014]</ref>  
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Between each cardiac muscle filament, there are intercalated discs found at the junction between cells. These discs are formed of [[Desmosomes|desmosomes]] and they hold the cells together over the [[Gap Junction|gap junctions]].This allows [[Action potentials|action potentials]] to move with lower resistance<ref>Queen Margaret University (2012) 'Excitable Tissues' [Online] Available at http://www.qmu.ac.uk/hn/appliedscience/D%20Excitable%20Tissues/cardiac_muscle.htm [Accessed on 27/11/2014]</ref>.
  
=== References<br> ===
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=== References  ===
  
 
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Latest revision as of 19:42, 4 December 2017

Cardiac muscle is one of the three types of muscle in mammals. It is myogenic striated muscle that forms the structure of the heart. Cardiac muscle contracts like skeletal muscle; the shortening of the sarcomere causes the contraction on the muscle[1].

The structure of cardiac muscle are long, cylindrical cells with one, sometimes two, nuclei. They branch out into 'Y' shapes. There is a rich blood supply provided by the vast capillary network. This is necessary due to the high level of energy required for the typical heart function. This capillary network is supported by connective tissue between these cardiac muscle fibres. There are also far more mitochondria in cardiac muscle than typical skeletal muscle as the production of ATP is essential to cardiac muscle function, unlike most muscles in the body they are constantly contracting and relaxing thus requiring far more energy than in skeletal muscle[2].

Between each cardiac muscle filament, there are intercalated discs found at the junction between cells. These discs are formed of desmosomes and they hold the cells together over the gap junctions.This allows action potentials to move with lower resistance[3].

References

  1. Alberts, B. et al 'Molecular Biology of the Cell' Fifth Edition (2008) p.1031, Abingdon, Garland Science, Taylor and Francis Group LLC
  2. Lemieux H, Hoppel C. Mitochondria in the human heart. Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes [Internet]. 2009 [cited 3 December 2017];41(2):99-106. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19353253
  3. Queen Margaret University (2012) 'Excitable Tissues' [Online] Available at http://www.qmu.ac.uk/hn/appliedscience/D%20Excitable%20Tissues/cardiac_muscle.htm [Accessed on 27/11/2014]
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