Cell death

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Cell death may happen normally or can occur in response to diseases and injury. Two major processes leading to cell death are apoptosis and necrosis. [[Apoptosis|Apoptosis]] can be beneficial or fatal in [[Cell cycle|cell cycle]]. Cells grow and divide when they receive external signals in form of [[Growth_factors|growth factors]]. When a cell doesn’t receive a signal, it enters into a resting phase called G<sub>0</sub> until when it is needed. If the cell does not receive any signal, it may remain in&nbsp;G<sub>0 </sub>or it may undergo apoptosis, which is as a 'programmed cell death'<ref>Walter F. Boron, Emile L. Boulpaep. (2008) Medical Physiology: a Cellular and Molecular Approach, 2nd revised edition, Philadelphia: Elsevier – Health Sciences Division</ref>. Cell apoptosis is aid by a protein called [[Caspases|caspases]] which will breakdown the nucleus and cleave the [[Cytoskeleton|cytoskeleton]]. Apoptosis is similar but different to [[Necrosis|necrosis]], as they both involve a loss in body cells. Necrosis may occur in response to injury such as severe trauma and may lead to an uncontrolled breakdown of cell structure and thus, leads to an uncontrolled response<ref>Walter F. Boron, Emile L. Boulpaep. (2008) Medical Physiology: a Cellular and Molecular Approach, 2nd revised edition, Philadelphia: Elsevier – Health Sciences Division</ref>. Cells undergoing necrosis will 'swell and burst, spilling their contents over their neighbours and triggers an inflammatory response'<ref>Alberts ,B., Johnson,A.,Lewis,J.,Raff,M.,Roberts,K.,Walter,P.(2008) 'Molecular Biology of The Cell' fifth ed.,Garland Science,New York, pp.1115-1128</ref>. Apoptosis is important for the formation of [[Organ|organs]], tissues, tissue renewal or it may be due to a minor injury.  
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Cell death may happen normally or can occur in response to diseases and injury. Two major processes leading to cell death are apoptosis and necrosis. [[Apoptosis|Apoptosis]] can be beneficial or fatal in [[Cell cycle|cell cycle]]. Cells grow and divide when they receive external signals in form of [[Growth factors|growth factors]]. When a cell doesn’t receive a signal, it enters into a resting phase called G<sub>0</sub> until when it is needed. If the cell does not receive any signal, it may remain in G<sub>0 </sub>or it may undergo apoptosis, which is as a 'programmed cell death'<ref>Walter F. Boron, Emile L. Boulpaep. (2008) Medical Physiology: a Cellular and Molecular Approach, 2nd revised edition, Philadelphia: Elsevier – Health Sciences Division</ref>. Cell apoptosis is aid by a protein called [[Caspases|caspases]] which will breakdown the nucleus and cleave the [[Cytoskeleton|cytoskeleton]]. Apoptosis is similar but different to [[Necrosis|necrosis]], as they both involve a loss in body cells. [[Necrosis|Necrosis]] may occur in response to injury such as severe trauma and may lead to an uncontrolled breakdown of cell structure and thus, leads to an uncontrolled response<ref>Walter F. Boron, Emile L. Boulpaep. (2008) Medical Physiology: a Cellular and Molecular Approach, 2nd revised edition, Philadelphia: Elsevier – Health Sciences Division</ref>. Cells undergoing necrosis will 'swell and burst, spilling their contents over their neighbours and triggers an inflammatory response'<ref>Alberts ,B., Johnson,A.,Lewis,J.,Raff,M.,Roberts,K.,Walter,P.(2008) 'Molecular Biology of The Cell' fifth ed.,Garland Science,New York, pp.1115-1128</ref>. Apoptosis is important for the formation of [[Organ|organs]], tissues, tissue renewal or it may be due to a minor injury.  
  
In response to apoptosis, a cell may shrink and this triggers [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] where it is eaten up by another cell. Apoptosis can result to [[Cancer|cancer]]&nbsp;<ref>http://www.sgul.ac.uk/depts/immunology/~dash/apoptosis</ref><br>
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In response to apoptosis, a cell may shrink and this triggers [[Phagocytosis|phagocytosis]] where it is eaten up by another cell. Apoptosis can result to [[Cancer|cancer]]<ref>http://www.sgul.ac.uk/depts/immunology/~dash/apoptosis</ref>  
  
 
=== References  ===
 
=== References  ===
  
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Latest revision as of 15:30, 23 October 2018

Cell death may happen normally or can occur in response to diseases and injury. Two major processes leading to cell death are apoptosis and necrosis. Apoptosis can be beneficial or fatal in cell cycle. Cells grow and divide when they receive external signals in form of growth factors. When a cell doesn’t receive a signal, it enters into a resting phase called G0 until when it is needed. If the cell does not receive any signal, it may remain in G0 or it may undergo apoptosis, which is as a 'programmed cell death'[1]. Cell apoptosis is aid by a protein called caspases which will breakdown the nucleus and cleave the cytoskeleton. Apoptosis is similar but different to necrosis, as they both involve a loss in body cells. Necrosis may occur in response to injury such as severe trauma and may lead to an uncontrolled breakdown of cell structure and thus, leads to an uncontrolled response[2]. Cells undergoing necrosis will 'swell and burst, spilling their contents over their neighbours and triggers an inflammatory response'[3]. Apoptosis is important for the formation of organs, tissues, tissue renewal or it may be due to a minor injury.

In response to apoptosis, a cell may shrink and this triggers phagocytosis where it is eaten up by another cell. Apoptosis can result to cancer[4]

References

  1. Walter F. Boron, Emile L. Boulpaep. (2008) Medical Physiology: a Cellular and Molecular Approach, 2nd revised edition, Philadelphia: Elsevier – Health Sciences Division
  2. Walter F. Boron, Emile L. Boulpaep. (2008) Medical Physiology: a Cellular and Molecular Approach, 2nd revised edition, Philadelphia: Elsevier – Health Sciences Division
  3. Alberts ,B., Johnson,A.,Lewis,J.,Raff,M.,Roberts,K.,Walter,P.(2008) 'Molecular Biology of The Cell' fifth ed.,Garland Science,New York, pp.1115-1128
  4. http://www.sgul.ac.uk/depts/immunology/~dash/apoptosis
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