Cell signalling molecules

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Cell signalling molecules transmit biological information between cells of [[Multicellular|multicellular organisms]]. Although all these molecules act as [[ligands|ligands]] that bind to [[Receptors|receptors]] expressed by their [[target cells|target cells]], there is considerable variation in the structure and function of the different types of molecules that serve as signal transmitters<ref>The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Cooper GM.
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Cell signalling molecules transmit biological information between cells of [[Multicellular|multicellular organisms]]. Although all these molecules act as [[Ligands|ligands]] that bind to [[Receptors|receptors]] expressed by their [[Target cells|target cells]], there is considerable variation in the structure and function of the different types of molecules that serve as signal transmitters<ref>The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Cooper GM. Sunderland (MA)</ref>.  
Sunderland (MA)</ref>.
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Cell signalling molecules can carry signals over long distances, whereas others act locally to convey information between neighboring cells. In addition, signaling molecules differ in their mode of action on their target cells<ref>The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Cooper GM.
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Cell signalling molecules can carry signals over long distances, whereas others act locally to convey information between neighbouring cells. In addition, signalling molecules differ in their mode of action on their target cells<ref>The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Cooper GM. Sunderland (MA)</ref>.  
Sunderland (MA)</ref>.
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The different pathways that cell siganlling molecules can travel are:
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The different pathways that cell siganlling molecules can travel are:  
  
*[[Gap_Junction|Gap junctions]]
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*[[Gap Junction|Gap junctions]]  
*[[conatact dependent|Contact dependent&nbsp;]]
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*[[Conatact dependent|Contact dependent ]]  
*[[paracrine|Paracrine]]
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*[[Paracrine|Paracrine]]  
*[[synaptic|Synaptic]]
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*[[Synaptic|Synaptic]]
  
Signalling molecules can be[[Hydrophobic|hydrophobic]] and can cross the hydrophobic region of the [[Phospholipid_bilayer|phospholipid bilayer]] of cell membrane and bind to [[Intracellular_receptors|intracellular receptors]] in the cytoplasm or nucleus. [[Steroid_Hormone|Steroid hormones]] and NO gas are examples of [[Hydrophobic|hydrophobic]] signalling molecules.
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Signalling molecules can be [[Hydrophobic|hydrophobic]] and can cross the hydrophobic region of the [[Phospholipid bilayer|phospholipid bilayer]] of the cell membrane and bind to [[Intracellular receptors|intracellular receptors]] in the cytoplasm or nucleus. [[Steroid Hormone|Steroid hormones]] and NO gas are examples of [[Hydrophobic|hydrophobic]] signalling molecules.  
  
However,most signalling molecules are [[Hydrophillic|hydrophillic]] and therefore cannot pass through the cell membrane. Instead they bind to specific [[Receptors|receptors]] expressed on their respective target cell surface membrane.
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However, most signalling molecules are [[Hydrophillic|hydrophillic]] and therefore cannot pass through the cell membrane. Instead, they bind to specific [[Receptors|receptors]] expressed on their respective target cell surface membrane.  
  
=== References ===
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=== References ===
  
 
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Latest revision as of 22:28, 5 December 2017

Cell signalling molecules transmit biological information between cells of multicellular organisms. Although all these molecules act as ligands that bind to receptors expressed by their target cells, there is considerable variation in the structure and function of the different types of molecules that serve as signal transmitters[1].

Cell signalling molecules can carry signals over long distances, whereas others act locally to convey information between neighbouring cells. In addition, signalling molecules differ in their mode of action on their target cells[2].

The different pathways that cell siganlling molecules can travel are:

Signalling molecules can be hydrophobic and can cross the hydrophobic region of the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane and bind to intracellular receptors in the cytoplasm or nucleus. Steroid hormones and NO gas are examples of hydrophobic signalling molecules.

However, most signalling molecules are hydrophillic and therefore cannot pass through the cell membrane. Instead, they bind to specific receptors expressed on their respective target cell surface membrane.

References

  1. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Cooper GM. Sunderland (MA)
  2. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Cooper GM. Sunderland (MA)
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