Coenzyme

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Coenzymes are small organic molecules that act as a&nbsp;[[Cofactor]]&nbsp;to an [[Enzyme|enzyme]]. The other type of cofactors are [[Transition metal|metals]]. The role of cofactors varies with the type of cofactor and enzyme. An enzyme with a cofactor is catalytically active and is known as a&nbsp;[[Holoenzyme]].&nbsp;<br>  
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Coenzymes are small organic molecules that have the ability to act as a&nbsp;[[Cofactor]]&nbsp;to an [[Enzyme|enzyme]]. Other well know cofactors are [[Transition metal|metals]]. The role of cofactors varies with the type of cofactor and enzyme. An enzyme with a cofactor is catalytically active, and therefore is known as a&nbsp;[[Holoenzyme]].&nbsp;<br>  
  
Coenymes usually originate from vitamins. They can be tightly or loosely bound to the [[enzyme|enzyme]]. Coenzymes that are tightly bound are known as [[prosthetic group|prosthetic groups]], whilst loosely bound coenzymes are called cosubstrates. This is becuase they actually bind and release from the enzyme, much like a [[Substrate|substrate]] molecule.<br>  
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Coenymes usually originate from vitamins. They can bind tightly or loosely to an&nbsp;[[Enzyme|enzyme]]. Coenzymes that are tightly bound are known as [[Prosthetic group|prosthetic groups]], whilst loosely bound coenzymes are called cosubstrates. This is because they actually bind and are released from the enzyme, much like a [[Substrate|substrate]] molecule.<br>  
  
Coenzymes act as electron/proton carriers in reactions, so they are involved in&nbsp;[[Oxidation]]&nbsp;and [[Reduction|Reduction]]&nbsp;reactions. [[NAD+|NAD+]] can accept 2 electrons whereas FAD can be reduced by taking up 2 protons to form [[FADH2|FADH<sub>2</sub>]]&nbsp;<ref>Berg JM, Tymoczko, Stryer L. (2011), Biochemistry,7th Edition, New York: WH Freeman (p229, p456-8)</ref>.<br>
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Coenzymes act as electron/proton carriers in reactions, so they are involved in&nbsp;[[Oxidation]]&nbsp;and [[Reduction|Reduction]]&nbsp;reactions. [[NAD+|NAD+]] can accept 2 electrons whereas FAD can be reduced by taking up 2 protons to form [[FADH2|FADH<sub>2</sub>]]&nbsp;<ref>Berg JM, Tymoczko, Stryer L. (2011), Biochemistry,7th Edition, New York: WH Freeman (p229, p456-8)</ref>.<br>  
  
 
=== References  ===
 
=== References  ===
  
 
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Revision as of 18:50, 20 November 2017

Coenzymes are small organic molecules that have the ability to act as a Cofactor to an enzyme. Other well know cofactors are metals. The role of cofactors varies with the type of cofactor and enzyme. An enzyme with a cofactor is catalytically active, and therefore is known as a Holoenzyme

Coenymes usually originate from vitamins. They can bind tightly or loosely to an enzyme. Coenzymes that are tightly bound are known as prosthetic groups, whilst loosely bound coenzymes are called cosubstrates. This is because they actually bind and are released from the enzyme, much like a substrate molecule.

Coenzymes act as electron/proton carriers in reactions, so they are involved in Oxidation and Reduction reactions. NAD+ can accept 2 electrons whereas FAD can be reduced by taking up 2 protons to form FADH2 [1].

References

  1. Berg JM, Tymoczko, Stryer L. (2011), Biochemistry,7th Edition, New York: WH Freeman (p229, p456-8)

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