Cystic Fibrosis, or CF, is one of the most common inherited diseases in the caucasian population with 1 in 2500 live births resulting in an infant born with CF, and 1 in 25 people being heterozygous (carriers) for the condition. Cystic Fibrois is a result of a mutation in the CFTR gene (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator), whereby the protein is incorrectly folded once it has been synthesised in the endoplasmic reticulum. As a result of the mutation, most CFTR genes are broken down before they can be released from the plasma membrane.
The function of the CFTR gene is to act as a cAMP chlorine channel on the apical plasma membrane of most epithelial cells, for example lining the respiratory tract and in the pancreas, thereby regulating the amount and composition of epithelial secretions. Unfortunately, without the CFTR gene there is disruption to the transport processes on the apical membrane, for example a decrease in the HCO3- and water secretion. The lack of water secretion causes a build up of thick mucus either along the respiratory tract or the GI tract. This build up of mucus, results in obstructions and tissue damage. In the GI tract, pancreatic juices cannot be released leading to food not being able to be digested correctly, hence malnutrient issues are common in patients with CF. The build up of mucis in the respiratory tract causes recurrent infections, which are difficult to treat. Lung function decreases approximately 2% each year, eventually resulting in a need for the patient to receive a lifesaving lung transplant.
Boron, F & Boulpaep, E (2009) Medical Physiology.