D-amino acids

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Amino acids can exist in two stereoisomeric forms, D-amino (dextrorotatory) and L-amino (levorortatory)[1]. Most amio acid exist in the L-isomer form in living organisms. However in recent years with major technological advancements in science D-isomers have also been found in living things[2]. D-isomers are mainly found in bacteria in the peptidoglycan cell wall.

D-alanine and D-glutamine are the main components in the peptidoglycan cell wall and can be associated with antibiotic resistance in bacteria[3].


  1. Hardin J, Bertoni G, Kleinsmith L.J. Becker's World of the Cell, 8th ed. : Benjamin Cummings;
  2. Polluzioni L. A World in the Mirror: D amino acids. http://www.d-aminoacids.com/Introduction/introduction.html (accessed 3 December 2016).
  3. Polluzioni L. A World in the Mirror: D amino acids. http://www.d-aminoacids.com/organisms/organisms.html (accessed 3 December 2016).
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