A deoxynucleotide in biological terms is a component of deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA. A deoxynucleotide is made up of an organic base, a ribose sugar and phosphate. DNA polymerase requires deoxynucleotides in their triphosphate (containing three phosphates) form in order for DNA synthesis to take place. The 4 triphosphates (dNTPs) are ATP, CTP, GTP and TTP, one for each organise base – adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine relatively.
Deoxynucleotide triphosphates are an essential component of nucleic acid molecules and are required in PCR (polymerase chain reaction), a technique used in genetics that analyses a short sequence of DNA and used to amplify sections of DNA that are wanted and required. No amplified DNA would be able to be made without dNTPs.