Diabetes

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= '''Diabetes Mellitus'''  =
 
= '''Diabetes Mellitus'''  =
  
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by [[Hyperglycemia|hyperglycemia]] due to defects in the production or action of the [[Insulin|insulin]]. <br>  
+
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by [[Hyperglycemia|hyperglycemia]] due to defects in the production or action of the [[Insulin|insulin]]. <br>
  
According to the [http://www.diabetes.org/ American Diabetes Association]&nbsp;<ref>American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care January 2009 vol. 32 no. Supplement 1 S62-S67fckLRdoi: 10.2337/dc09-S062</ref> the different cases of diabetes mellitus can be classified as:<br>  
+
According to the [http://www.diabetes.org/ American Diabetes Association]&nbsp;<ref>American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care January 2009 vol. 32 no. Supplement 1 S62-S67fckLRdoi: 10.2337/dc09-S062</ref> the different cases of diabetes mellitus can be classified as:<br>
  
 
== Type 1 Diabetes&nbsp;<ref>Surg Annu. 1978;10:1-21. Replacement of pancreatic beta cells as treatment for diabetes mellitus: a review. Jonasson O, Hoversten GH.</ref>  ==
 
== Type 1 Diabetes&nbsp;<ref>Surg Annu. 1978;10:1-21. Replacement of pancreatic beta cells as treatment for diabetes mellitus: a review. Jonasson O, Hoversten GH.</ref>  ==
  
It is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. It can be due to an auto-immune response against the [[Pancreatic beta cells|pancreatic beta cells]] preventing the production of [[Insulin|insulin]]. Many cases of Type 1 diabetes have non-identified [[Etiology|etiology]] so they are considered to be [[Idiopathic|idiopathic]].<br>  
+
It is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. It can be due to an auto-immune response against the [[Pancreatic beta cells|pancreatic beta cells]] preventing the production of [[Insulin|insulin]]. Many cases of Type 1 diabetes have non-identified [[Etiology|etiology]] so they are considered to be [[Idiopathic|idiopathic]].<br>
  
 
== Type 2 Diabetes&nbsp;<ref>Acta Med Indones. 2010 Oct;42(4):204-8. Insulin resistance profile among siblings of type 2 diabetes mellitus (preliminary study). Purnamasari D, Soegondo S, Oemardi M, Gumiwang I. Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia - dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Jl. Diponegoro no. 71, Jakarta Pusat 10430, Indonesia.</ref>  ==
 
== Type 2 Diabetes&nbsp;<ref>Acta Med Indones. 2010 Oct;42(4):204-8. Insulin resistance profile among siblings of type 2 diabetes mellitus (preliminary study). Purnamasari D, Soegondo S, Oemardi M, Gumiwang I. Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia - dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Jl. Diponegoro no. 71, Jakarta Pusat 10430, Indonesia.</ref>  ==
  
It is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and is caused due to [[Insulin|insulin]] no longer triggering its [[Insuline signalling|signalling cascade]]. Increasing [[Obestiy|obestiy]] in the world is making this type of diabetes increasingly common.<br>  
+
It is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and is caused due to [[Insulin|insulin]] no longer triggering its [[Insuline signalling|signalling cascade]]. Increasing [[Obestiy|obestiy]] in the world is making this type of diabetes increasingly common.<br>
  
 
Type 2 Diabetes is prevalent in certain indigenous populations including the Pima Indians in the USA and Aborigines in Australia. This is thought to be due to several environmental factors such as the western diet and obesity but&nbsp;a "faulty gene" is also though to be contributory though has not yet been identified.  
 
Type 2 Diabetes is prevalent in certain indigenous populations including the Pima Indians in the USA and Aborigines in Australia. This is thought to be due to several environmental factors such as the western diet and obesity but&nbsp;a "faulty gene" is also though to be contributory though has not yet been identified.  
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== Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)&nbsp;<ref>Diabetes Care. 2010 Oct 26. [Epub ahead of print] Body and Liver Fat Mass Rather Than Muscle Mitochondrial Function Determines Glucose Metabolism in Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes. Prikoszovich T, Winzer C, Schmid AI, Szendroedi J, Chmelik M, Pacini G, Krssák M, Moser E, Funahashi T, Waldhäusl W, Kautzky-Willer A, Roden M. Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.</ref>  ==
 
== Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)&nbsp;<ref>Diabetes Care. 2010 Oct 26. [Epub ahead of print] Body and Liver Fat Mass Rather Than Muscle Mitochondrial Function Determines Glucose Metabolism in Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes. Prikoszovich T, Winzer C, Schmid AI, Szendroedi J, Chmelik M, Pacini G, Krssák M, Moser E, Funahashi T, Waldhäusl W, Kautzky-Willer A, Roden M. Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.</ref>  ==
  
It normally occurs during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.<br>  
+
It normally occurs during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.<br>
  
 
== Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG)&nbsp;<ref>Clin Chem. 2010 Nov 9. [Epub ahead of print] Prediabetes as a Therapeutic Target. Pour OR, Dagogo-Jack S. Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.</ref>  ==
 
== Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG)&nbsp;<ref>Clin Chem. 2010 Nov 9. [Epub ahead of print] Prediabetes as a Therapeutic Target. Pour OR, Dagogo-Jack S. Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.</ref>  ==
  
In pateints with IGT there is a loss in insulin sensitivity leading to hyperinsulinism<ref>Reaven G. M., Greenfield M. S., Diabetes, 30, (Suppl. 2), 66—75 (1981).</ref>. It is an intermediate state where the [[Glycemia|glycemia]] is not high enough to be considered diabetes but being higher than the normal levels.<br>  
+
In pateints with IGT there is a loss in insulin sensitivity leading to hyperinsulinism<ref>Reaven G. M., Greenfield M. S., Diabetes, 30, (Suppl. 2), 66—75 (1981).</ref>. It is an intermediate state where the [[Glycemia|glycemia]] is not high enough to be considered diabetes but being higher than the normal levels.<br>
  
 
= '''Diabetes Insipidus'''  =
 
= '''Diabetes Insipidus'''  =
  
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by mutations in [[Aquaporin 2|aquaporin 2]]. Usually [[Aquaporin 2|AQP2]] is trafficked to the [[Cell membrane|cell membrane]] where it facilitates the reabsorption of water into the cell. In the diseased state the channels are retained inside the cell resulting in the inability to control the concentration of urine being produced&nbsp;<ref>The Journal of Cell Biology. (2003). Reversed polarized delivery of an aquaporin-2 mutant causes dominant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus 163(5):1099-109</ref>.<br>  
+
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by mutations in [[Aquaporin 2|aquaporin 2]]. Usually [[Aquaporin 2|AQP2]] is trafficked to the [[Cell membrane|cell membrane]] where it facilitates the reabsorption of water into the cell. In the diseased state the channels are retained inside the cell resulting in the inability to control the concentration of urine being produced&nbsp;<ref>The Journal of Cell Biology. (2003). Reversed polarized delivery of an aquaporin-2 mutant causes dominant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus 163(5):1099-109</ref>.<br>
  
 
= '''References'''  =
 
= '''References'''  =
  
 
<references />
 
<references />

Revision as of 11:19, 31 October 2011

Contents

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by hyperglycemia due to defects in the production or action of the insulin.

According to the American Diabetes Association [1] the different cases of diabetes mellitus can be classified as:

Type 1 Diabetes [2]

It is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. It can be due to an auto-immune response against the pancreatic beta cells preventing the production of insulin. Many cases of Type 1 diabetes have non-identified etiology so they are considered to be idiopathic.

Type 2 Diabetes [3]

It is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and is caused due to insulin no longer triggering its signalling cascade. Increasing obestiy in the world is making this type of diabetes increasingly common.

Type 2 Diabetes is prevalent in certain indigenous populations including the Pima Indians in the USA and Aborigines in Australia. This is thought to be due to several environmental factors such as the western diet and obesity but a "faulty gene" is also though to be contributory though has not yet been identified.

Other Specific Types of Diabetes [4]

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) [5]

It normally occurs during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) [6]

In pateints with IGT there is a loss in insulin sensitivity leading to hyperinsulinism[7]. It is an intermediate state where the glycemia is not high enough to be considered diabetes but being higher than the normal levels.

Diabetes Insipidus

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by mutations in aquaporin 2. Usually AQP2 is trafficked to the cell membrane where it facilitates the reabsorption of water into the cell. In the diseased state the channels are retained inside the cell resulting in the inability to control the concentration of urine being produced [8].

References

  1. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care January 2009 vol. 32 no. Supplement 1 S62-S67fckLRdoi: 10.2337/dc09-S062
  2. Surg Annu. 1978;10:1-21. Replacement of pancreatic beta cells as treatment for diabetes mellitus: a review. Jonasson O, Hoversten GH.
  3. Acta Med Indones. 2010 Oct;42(4):204-8. Insulin resistance profile among siblings of type 2 diabetes mellitus (preliminary study). Purnamasari D, Soegondo S, Oemardi M, Gumiwang I. Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia - dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Jl. Diponegoro no. 71, Jakarta Pusat 10430, Indonesia.
  4. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care January 2009 vol. 32 no. Supplement 1 S62-S67fckLRdoi: 10.2337/dc09-S062
  5. Diabetes Care. 2010 Oct 26. [Epub ahead of print] Body and Liver Fat Mass Rather Than Muscle Mitochondrial Function Determines Glucose Metabolism in Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes. Prikoszovich T, Winzer C, Schmid AI, Szendroedi J, Chmelik M, Pacini G, Krssák M, Moser E, Funahashi T, Waldhäusl W, Kautzky-Willer A, Roden M. Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
  6. Clin Chem. 2010 Nov 9. [Epub ahead of print] Prediabetes as a Therapeutic Target. Pour OR, Dagogo-Jack S. Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.
  7. Reaven G. M., Greenfield M. S., Diabetes, 30, (Suppl. 2), 66—75 (1981).
  8. The Journal of Cell Biology. (2003). Reversed polarized delivery of an aquaporin-2 mutant causes dominant nephrogenic diabetes insipidus 163(5):1099-109
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