Differentiation

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Differentiation is the process in which unspecialised cells (also known as [[Stem cells|stem cells]]) change to become more specialised, therefore gaining more specific functions. Differentiation is irreversible within [[mammals|mammals]], however, it is possible to artificially transform [[somatic cells |somatic cells ]]into induced [[Induced Pluripotent stem cell|pluripotent stem cells]] by changing the gene expression of the somatic cell<ref>Gurdon JB, From nuclear transfer to nuclear reprogramming: the reversal of cell differentiation.Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2006;22:1-22.</ref>. Differentiation plays a critical role in development as this is how a single [[Pluripotent stem cell|pluripotent]] [[blastocyst|blastocyst]] can turn into every cell type in the body. Differentiation is controlled chemically with different growth factors signalling the stem cell to specialise to different cell types.  
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Differentiation is the process in which unspecialised cells (also known as [[Stem cells|stem cells]]) change to become more specialised, therefore gaining more specific functions. Differentiation is irreversible within [[Mammals|mammals]], however, it is possible to artificially [[Transformation|transform]] [[Somatic_cells|somatic cells]] into&nbsp;[[Induced_Pluripotent_stem_cell|induced pluripotent stem cells]] by changing the [[Gene_expression|gene expression]] of the somatic cell<ref>Gurdon JB, From nuclear transfer to nuclear reprogramming: the reversal of cell differentiation.Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2006;22:1-22.</ref>. Differentiation plays a critical role in development as this is how a single [[Pluripotent stem cell|pluripotent]] [[Blastocyst|blastocyst]] can turn into every cell type in the body. Differentiation is controlled chemically with different [[Growth_factor|growth factors]] signalling the stem cell to specialise to different cell types.  
  
 
=== References  ===
 
=== References  ===
  
 
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Revision as of 18:48, 3 December 2017

Differentiation is the process in which unspecialised cells (also known as stem cells) change to become more specialised, therefore gaining more specific functions. Differentiation is irreversible within mammals, however, it is possible to artificially transform somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells by changing the gene expression of the somatic cell[1]. Differentiation plays a critical role in development as this is how a single pluripotent blastocyst can turn into every cell type in the body. Differentiation is controlled chemically with different growth factors signalling the stem cell to specialise to different cell types.

References

  1. Gurdon JB, From nuclear transfer to nuclear reprogramming: the reversal of cell differentiation.Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2006;22:1-22.
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