EPSP

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=== In the Central Nervous System (CNS)  ===
 
=== In the Central Nervous System (CNS)  ===
  
The Central Nervous System (CNS) is made up of the brain and the spinal cord, it receives information from the nervous system, where neurons are the building blocks of the CNS.<ref>(1)</ref>. Many inputs from hundreds of other [[Neuron|neurons]] are received by a single neuron which then can form [[Synapse|synapses]] with many thousands of other [[Cell|cells]]. This type of neuronal transmission is known as convergence, where a small number of [[presynaptic neurons|presynaptic neurons]] can affect a large number of postsynaptic neurons, forming branches called collateral axons. The following are examples of convergence where some will create an [[action potential|action potential]] and some won't.<ref>(3)</ref>.  
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The Central Nervous System (CNS) is made up of the brain and the spinal cord, it receives information from the nervous system, where neurons are the building blocks of the CNS<ref>Cherry K. Structure and Function of the Central Nervous System [Internet]. Verywell Mind. 2018 [cited 6 December 2018]. Available from: https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-the-central-nervous-system-2794981</ref>. Many inputs from hundreds of other [[Neuron|neurons]] are received by a single neuron which then can form [[Synapse|synapses]] with many thousands of other [[Cell|cells]]. This type of neuronal transmission is known as convergence, where a small number of [[Presynaptic neurons|presynaptic neurons]] can affect a large number of postsynaptic neurons, forming branches called collateral axons. The following are examples of convergence where some will create an [[Action potential|action potential]] and some won't.<ref>Dharani K. Molecular-Grid Model. The Biology of Thought [Internet]. 2015 [cited 6 December 2018];:123-142. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128009000000075</ref>.  
  
 
=== '''Type of Potentials '''  ===
 
=== '''Type of Potentials '''  ===
  
Among these synapses on a single neuron, some get excited when others get inhibited. In the [[excitatory synapse|excitatory synapse]], the neurotransmitter is released which then causes a small [[depolarisation|depolarisation]] within the postsynaptic membrane, naming: excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP).  
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Among these synapses on a single neuron, some get excited when others get inhibited. In the [[Excitatory synapse|excitatory synapse]], the neurotransmitter is released which then causes a small [[Depolarisation|depolarisation]] within the postsynaptic membrane, naming: excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP).  
  
On the other hand, the neurotransmitter which is released from an [[inhibitory synapse|inhibitory synapse]] causes a small [[hyperpolarization|hyperpolarization]] called: an Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)<ref>(4)</ref>.  
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On the other hand, the neurotransmitter which is released from an [[Inhibitory synapse|inhibitory synapse]] causes a small [[Hyperpolarization|hyperpolarization]] called: an Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)<ref>Stewart M, Popov V, Kraev I, Medvedev N, Davies H. Structure and Complexity of the Synapse and Dendritic Spine. The Synapse [Internet]. 2014 [cited 5 December 2018];:1-20. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124186750000018</ref>.  
  
'''Process:''' When there is an electrical impulse and the [[neurotransmitter|neurotransmitter]] binds them to the channel on the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_synapse postsynaptic membrane], the channel opens.If sodium channels open, then Na+ enters the cell→ EPSP (positive), but if K+ or chloro channels open, then they will leave the cell→ [[IPSP|IPSP]] (negative).  
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'''Process:''' When there is an electrical impulse and the [[Neurotransmitter|neurotransmitter]] binds them to the channel on the [[postsynaptic membrane|postsynaptic membrane]], the channel opens.If sodium channels open, then Na+ enters the cell→ EPSP (positive), but if K<sup>+</sup> or chloro channels open, then they will leave the cell→ [[IPSP|IPSP]] (negative).  
  
*Temporal Summation: Occur from one presynaptic neuron. This is when the [[graded potential|graded potential]] occurs at a time that is so close to each other but from the same presynaptic neuron, therefore the summed potential hits [[threshold potential|threshold potential]] and triggers an action potential<ref>(2)</ref>.  
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*Temporal Summation: Occur from one presynaptic neuron. This is when the [[Graded potential|graded potential]] occurs at a time that is so close to each other but from the same presynaptic neuron, therefore the summed potential hits [[Threshold potential|threshold potential]] and triggers an action potential<ref>Stewart M, Popov V, Kraev I, Medvedev N, Davies H. Structure and Complexity of the Synapse and Dendritic Spine. The Synapse [Internet]. 2014 [cited 5 December 2018];:1-20. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124186750000018</ref>.  
 
*Spatial Summation: Neurons fire EPSP, which is positive due to sodium ions, each EPSP is subthreshold, meaning there is no action potential, but if subthreshold reaches the trigger zone at the same time, together, they will create a suprathreshold, which will create an action potential.  
 
*Spatial Summation: Neurons fire EPSP, which is positive due to sodium ions, each EPSP is subthreshold, meaning there is no action potential, but if subthreshold reaches the trigger zone at the same time, together, they will create a suprathreshold, which will create an action potential.  
 
*Postsynaptic Inhibition: There is no action potential because the graded potential does not reach threshold potential when they reach the trigger zone.
 
*Postsynaptic Inhibition: There is no action potential because the graded potential does not reach threshold potential when they reach the trigger zone.
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=== Reference  ===
 
=== Reference  ===
  
<references />  
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<references /><br>
 
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1. Cherry K. Structure and Function of the Central Nervous System [Internet]. Verywell Mind. 2018 [cited 6 December 2018]. Available from: https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-the-central-nervous-system-2794981
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2. Dharani K. Molecular-Grid Model. The Biology of Thought [Internet]. 2015 [cited 6 December 2018];:123-142. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128009000000075
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3. Stewart M, Popov V, Kraev I, Medvedev N, Davies H. Structure and Complexity of the Synapse and Dendritic Spine. The Synapse [Internet]. 2014 [cited 5 December 2018];:1-20. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124186750000018
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4. Stewart M, Popov V, Kraev I, Medvedev N, Davies H. Structure and Complexity of the Synapse and Dendritic Spine. The Synapse [Internet]. 2014 [cited 5 December 2018];:1-20. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124186750000018
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Revision as of 16:23, 7 December 2018

In the Central Nervous System (CNS)

The Central Nervous System (CNS) is made up of the brain and the spinal cord, it receives information from the nervous system, where neurons are the building blocks of the CNS[1]. Many inputs from hundreds of other neurons are received by a single neuron which then can form synapses with many thousands of other cells. This type of neuronal transmission is known as convergence, where a small number of presynaptic neurons can affect a large number of postsynaptic neurons, forming branches called collateral axons. The following are examples of convergence where some will create an action potential and some won't.[2].

Type of Potentials

Among these synapses on a single neuron, some get excited when others get inhibited. In the excitatory synapse, the neurotransmitter is released which then causes a small depolarisation within the postsynaptic membrane, naming: excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP).

On the other hand, the neurotransmitter which is released from an inhibitory synapse causes a small hyperpolarization called: an Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)[3].

Process: When there is an electrical impulse and the neurotransmitter binds them to the channel on the postsynaptic membrane, the channel opens.If sodium channels open, then Na+ enters the cell→ EPSP (positive), but if K+ or chloro channels open, then they will leave the cell→ IPSP (negative).

Reference

  1. Cherry K. Structure and Function of the Central Nervous System [Internet]. Verywell Mind. 2018 [cited 6 December 2018]. Available from: https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-the-central-nervous-system-2794981
  2. Dharani K. Molecular-Grid Model. The Biology of Thought [Internet]. 2015 [cited 6 December 2018];:123-142. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128009000000075
  3. Stewart M, Popov V, Kraev I, Medvedev N, Davies H. Structure and Complexity of the Synapse and Dendritic Spine. The Synapse [Internet]. 2014 [cited 5 December 2018];:1-20. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124186750000018
  4. Stewart M, Popov V, Kraev I, Medvedev N, Davies H. Structure and Complexity of the Synapse and Dendritic Spine. The Synapse [Internet]. 2014 [cited 5 December 2018];:1-20. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124186750000018

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