Epinephrine

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Epinephrine is also known as [[Adrenaline|adrenaline]]. It is a [[Steroid hormone|steroid hormone]] which is released by [[Chromaffin cells|chromaffin cells]] in the [[Adrenal gland|adrenal glands]] as part of the 'fight or flight' response. This response can be induced by stress or other stimuli in the environment and causes many physiological effects such as increased heart rate, increased blood sugar levels (due to the conversion of [[Glycogen|glycogen]] to [[Glucose|glucose]] in the [[Liver|liver]]); increased breathing rate, constriction of peripheral blood vessels and dilation of the pupils <ref>Alberts et al. (2008:G2), Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th edition, New York: Garland Science</ref>.  
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Epinephrine is also known as [[Adrenaline|adrenaline]]. It is a [[Steroid hormone|steroid hormone]] which is released by [[Chromaffin cells|chromaffin cells]] in the [[Adrenal gland|adrenal glands]] as part of the 'fight or flight' response. This response can be induced by stress or other stimuli in the environment and causes many physiological effects such as increased heart rate, increased blood sugar levels (due to the conversion of [[Glycogen|glycogen]] to [[Glucose|glucose]] in the [[Liver|liver]]); increased breathing rate, constriction of peripheral blood vessels and dilation of the pupils <ref>Alberts et al. (2008:G2), Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th edition, New York: Garland Science</ref><ref>The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (2015). https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a603002.html date visited 20/10/2015</ref>.  
  
Epinephrine injections can cause side effects such as :
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Epinephrine injections can cause side effects such as&nbsp;:  
  
•difficulty breathing<br>•pounding, fast, or irregular heartbeat<br>•nausea<br>•vomiting<br>•sweating<br>•dizziness<br>•nervousness, anxiety, or restlessness<br>•weakness<br>•pale skin<br>•headache<br>•uncontrollable shaking of a part of your body<ref name="2">American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (2012). https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a603002.html</ref><br>
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*difficulty breathing  
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*pounding, fast, or irregular heartbeat  
 +
*nausea
 +
*vomiting
 +
*sweating
 +
*dizziness
 +
*nervousness, anxiety, or restlessness  
 +
*weakness
 +
*pale skin  
 +
*headache
 +
*uncontrollable shaking of a part of your body<ref>American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (2012). https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a603002.html</ref>
  
=== Reference<ref name="2">The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (2015). https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a603002.html date visited 20/10/2015</ref> ===
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=== Reference ===
  
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Revision as of 19:53, 20 October 2015

Epinephrine is also known as adrenaline. It is a steroid hormone which is released by chromaffin cells in the adrenal glands as part of the 'fight or flight' response. This response can be induced by stress or other stimuli in the environment and causes many physiological effects such as increased heart rate, increased blood sugar levels (due to the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver); increased breathing rate, constriction of peripheral blood vessels and dilation of the pupils [1][2].

Epinephrine injections can cause side effects such as :

Reference

  1. Alberts et al. (2008:G2), Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th edition, New York: Garland Science
  2. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (2015). https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a603002.html date visited 20/10/2015
  3. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (2012). https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a603002.html
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