Essential amino acids

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 Of the 20 [[Amino_Acids|amino acids]] found in proteins, 9 are considered to be essential. This means they cannot be synthesised by vertebrates and are aquired from other organisms, such as plants, as part of a vertebrate's diet. 
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Of the 20 [[Amino Acids|amino acids]] found in proteins, 9 are considered to be essential. This means they cannot be synthesised by vertebrates and are acquired from other organisms, such as plants, as part of a vertebrate's diet.   
 
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The 9 essential amino acids are [[Histidine|histidine]], [[Isoleucine|isoleucine]], [[Leucine|leucine]], [[Lysine|lysine]], [[Methionine|methionine]], [[Phenylalanine|phenylalanine]], [[Threonine|threonine]], [[Tryptophan|tryptophan]] and [[Valine|valine]]. 
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The 9 essential amino acids are [[Histidine|histidine]], [[Isoleucine|isoleucine]], [[Leucine|leucine]], [[Lysine|lysine]], [[Methionine|methionine]], [[Phenylalanine|phenylalanine]], [[Threonine|threonine]], [[Tryptophan|tryptophan]] and [[Valine|valine]]<ref>Alberts, B; Johnson, A; Lewis, J; Morgan, D; Raff, M; Roberts, K; Walter, P. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Sixth Edition. New York, NY: Garland Science. 2015. pages 86-87</ref>.&nbsp;
  
 
{| width="200" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1"
 
{| width="200" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1"
|+ The 9 essential amino acids
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|+ The 9 essential amino acids  
 
|-
 
|-
! scope="col" | Amino Acid&nbsp;
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! scope="col" | Amino Acid&nbsp;  
! scope="col" | Single letter code
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! scope="col" | Single letter code  
! scope="col" | Three letter code
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! scope="col" | Three letter code  
! scope="col" | Charge (+/-/neutral)
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! scope="col" | Charge (+/-/neutral)  
 
! scope="col" | Polar/ nonpolar
 
! scope="col" | Polar/ nonpolar
 
|-
 
|-
| Histidine
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| Histidine  
| H
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| H  
| His
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| His  
| +ve
+
| +ve  
 
| polar
 
| polar
 
|-
 
|-
| Isoleucine
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| Isoleucine  
| I
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| I  
| Ile
+
| Ile  
| neutral
+
| neutral  
 
| nonpolar
 
| nonpolar
 
|-
 
|-
| Leucine
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| Leucine  
| L
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| L  
| Leu
+
| Leu  
| neutral
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| neutral  
 
| nonpolar
 
| nonpolar
 
|-
 
|-
| Lysine
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| Lysine  
| K
+
| K  
| Lys
+
| Lys  
| +ve
+
| +ve  
 
| polar
 
| polar
 
|-
 
|-
| Methionine
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| Methionine  
| M&nbsp;
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| M&nbsp;  
| Met
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| Met  
| neutral
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| neutral  
 
| nonpolar
 
| nonpolar
 
|-
 
|-
| Phenylalanine
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| Phenylalanine  
| F
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| F  
| Phe
+
| Phe  
| neutral
+
| neutral  
 
| nonpolar
 
| nonpolar
 
|-
 
|-
| Threonine
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| Threonine  
| T
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| T  
| Thr
+
| Thr  
| neutral
+
| neutral  
 
| polar
 
| polar
 
|-
 
|-
| Tryptophan
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| Tryptophan  
| W
+
| W  
| Trp
+
| Trp  
| neutral
+
| neutral  
 
| nonpolar
 
| nonpolar
 
|-
 
|-
| Valine
+
| Valine  
| V
+
| V  
| Val
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| Val  
| neutral
+
| neutral  
 
| nonpolar
 
| nonpolar
 
|}
 
|}
  
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=== References  ===
  
 
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<references />
 
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=== References ===
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<references />&nbsp;Alberts, B; Johnson, A; Lewis, J; Morgan, D; Raff, M; Roberts, K; Walter, P. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Sixth Edition. New York, NY: Garland Science. 2015
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Latest revision as of 22:01, 5 December 2017

Of the 20 amino acids found in proteins, 9 are considered to be essential. This means they cannot be synthesised by vertebrates and are acquired from other organisms, such as plants, as part of a vertebrate's diet. 

The 9 essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine[1]

The 9 essential amino acids
Amino Acid  Single letter code Three letter code Charge (+/-/neutral) Polar/ nonpolar
Histidine H His +ve polar
Isoleucine I Ile neutral nonpolar
Leucine L Leu neutral nonpolar
Lysine K Lys +ve polar
Methionine Met neutral nonpolar
Phenylalanine F Phe neutral nonpolar
Threonine T Thr neutral polar
Tryptophan W Trp neutral nonpolar
Valine V Val neutral nonpolar

References

  1. Alberts, B; Johnson, A; Lewis, J; Morgan, D; Raff, M; Roberts, K; Walter, P. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Sixth Edition. New York, NY: Garland Science. 2015. pages 86-87
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