Essential amino acids

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 Of the 20 amino acids found in proteins, 9 are considered to be essential. This means they cannot be synthesised by vertebrates and are aquired from other organisms, such as plants, as part of a vertebrate's diet. 

The 9 essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine

The 9 essential amino acids
Amino Acid  Single letter code Three letter code Charge (+/-/neutral) Polar/ nonpolar
Histidine H His +ve polar
Isoleucine I Ile neutral nonpolar
Leucine L Leu neutral nonpolar
Lysine K Lys +ve polar
Methionine Met neutral nonpolar
Phenylalanine F Phe neutral nonpolar
Threonine T Thr neutral polar
Tryptophan W Trp neutral nonpolar
Valine V Val neutral nonpolar


 Alberts, B; Johnson, A; Lewis, J; Morgan, D; Raff, M; Roberts, K; Walter, P. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Sixth Edition. New York, NY: Garland Science. 2015

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