Extremophiles

From The School of Biomedical Sciences Wiki
(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Changed the link from the unmade "Acidic" page to the "Acid" page.)
 
(One intermediate revision by one user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
&nbsp;Extremophiles are organisms with the ability to thrive in extreme conditions (from a human perspective) such as: deep ocean hydroothermal vents<ref>NOAA 10/10/17 https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/extremophile.html</ref>.&nbsp;
+
Extremophiles are organisms with the ability to thrive in extreme conditions (from a human perspective) such as: deep ocean hydrothermal vents<ref>NOAA 10/10/17 https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/extremophile.html</ref>.  
  
 
They are mostly [[Prokaryotic|prokaryotic]].  
 
They are mostly [[Prokaryotic|prokaryotic]].  
  
 
Extremophiles can be divided into sub-groups relating to environmental conditions in which they grow optimally<ref>https://www.britannica.com/science/extremophile</ref>:  
 
Extremophiles can be divided into sub-groups relating to environmental conditions in which they grow optimally<ref>https://www.britannica.com/science/extremophile</ref>:  
 
<br>
 
  
 
{| width="500" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1"
 
{| width="500" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1"
 
|-
 
|-
| [[acidophilic|acidophilic]]
+
| [[Acidophilic|acidophilic]]  
| optimal growth in [[acidic|acidic ]]conditions (pH 1-5)
+
| optimal growth in [[Acid|acidic conditions]] (pH 1-5)
 
|-
 
|-
| [[alkaliphilic|alkaliphilic]]
+
| [[Alkaliphilic|alkaliphilic]]  
| optimal growth [[alkaline|alkaline]] conditions (pH&gt;9)
+
| optimal growth [[Alkaline|alkaline]] conditions (pH&gt;9)
 
|-
 
|-
| [[halophilic|halophilic]]
+
| [[Halophilic|halophilic]]  
 
| environments with high salt concentration
 
| environments with high salt concentration
 
|-
 
|-
| [[thermophilic|thermophilic]]
+
| [[Thermophilic|thermophilic]]  
 
| optimal growth between 60-80 degrees celsius
 
| optimal growth between 60-80 degrees celsius
 
|-
 
|-
| [[hyperthermophilic|hyperthermophilic]]
+
| [[Hyperthermophilic|hyperthermophilic]]  
 
| optimal growth above 80 degrees celsius
 
| optimal growth above 80 degrees celsius
 
|-
 
|-
| [[psychrophilic|psychrophilic]]
+
| [[Psychrophilic|psychrophilic]]  
 
| optimal growth at 15 degrees celsius or lower
 
| optimal growth at 15 degrees celsius or lower
 
|-
 
|-
 
| piezophilic/barophilic  
 
| piezophilic/barophilic  
| optimal growth high[[hydrostatic pressure|hydrostatic pressure&nbsp;]]
+
| optimal growth high&nbsp;[[Hydrostatic pressure|hydrostatic pressure ]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[xerophilic|xerophilic]]
+
| [[Xerophilic|xerophilic]]  
| growth in dry conditions with low water availabilty&nbsp;
+
| growth in dry conditions with low water availabilty
 
|-
 
|-
| [[oligotrophic|oligotrophic]]
+
| [[Oligotrophic|oligotrophic]]  
 
| growth in nutritionally limited environments
 
| growth in nutritionally limited environments
 
|-
 
|-
| [[endolithic|endolithic]]
+
| [[Endolithic|endolithic]]  
 
|  
 
|  
growth in rocks or pores in mineral grains
+
growth in rocks or pores in mineral grains  
  
 
|}
 
|}
  
some extremophiles have multiple adaptions. e.g. thermoacidophiles&nbsp;<ref>Life in hot acid: Pathway analyses in extremely thermoacidophilic archaea
+
Some extremophiles have multiple adoptions. e.g. thermoacidophiles<ref>Life in hot acid: Pathway analyses in extremely thermoacidophilic archaea Kathryne S. Auernik, Charlotte R. Cooper, and Robert M. Kelly* Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2008 Oct; 19(5): 445–453. Published online 2008 Sep 11.</ref>.
Kathryne S. Auernik, Charlotte R. Cooper, and Robert M. Kelly* Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2008 Oct; 19(5): 445–453.
+
Published online 2008 Sep 11.</ref>
+
  
=== <br> Future advances  ===
+
=== Future advances  ===
  
extromophiles have extremozymes which are the enzymes that enable the organism to live in harsh conditions. This could influence: genetically based medications and industrial chemicals and processes<ref>NOAA 10/10/17 https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/extremophile.html</ref>.&nbsp;&nbsp;
+
Extremophiles have extremozymes which are the enzymes that enable the organism to live in harsh conditions. This could influence: genetically based medications and industrial chemicals and processes<ref>NOAA 10/10/17 https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/extremophile.html</ref>.  
  
=== References&nbsp; ===
+
=== References  ===
  
 
<references />
 
<references />

Latest revision as of 11:01, 18 October 2018

Extremophiles are organisms with the ability to thrive in extreme conditions (from a human perspective) such as: deep ocean hydrothermal vents[1].

They are mostly prokaryotic.

Extremophiles can be divided into sub-groups relating to environmental conditions in which they grow optimally[2]:

acidophilic optimal growth in acidic conditions (pH 1-5)
alkaliphilic optimal growth alkaline conditions (pH>9)
halophilic environments with high salt concentration
thermophilic optimal growth between 60-80 degrees celsius
hyperthermophilic optimal growth above 80 degrees celsius
psychrophilic optimal growth at 15 degrees celsius or lower
piezophilic/barophilic optimal growth high hydrostatic pressure
xerophilic growth in dry conditions with low water availabilty
oligotrophic growth in nutritionally limited environments
endolithic

growth in rocks or pores in mineral grains

Some extremophiles have multiple adoptions. e.g. thermoacidophiles[3].

Future advances

Extremophiles have extremozymes which are the enzymes that enable the organism to live in harsh conditions. This could influence: genetically based medications and industrial chemicals and processes[4].

References

  1. NOAA 10/10/17 https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/extremophile.html
  2. https://www.britannica.com/science/extremophile
  3. Life in hot acid: Pathway analyses in extremely thermoacidophilic archaea Kathryne S. Auernik, Charlotte R. Cooper, and Robert M. Kelly* Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2008 Oct; 19(5): 445–453. Published online 2008 Sep 11.
  4. NOAA 10/10/17 https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/extremophile.html
Personal tools
Namespaces
Variants
Actions
Navigation
Toolbox