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Fermentation is the anaerobic catabolic process that occurs in the absence of oxygen.[1] ATP is produced directly from an energy-rich intermediate by substrate-level phosphorylation during the catabolism of the fermentable compound. The fermentable compound that is fermented is both the electron donor and electron acceptor. Some substances cannot be fermented, for example, fatty acids as they are too reduced. Many compounds can be fermented especially sugars, for example, hexose sugars such as glucose. The common pathway of fermentation for glucose is called glycolysis[2].


  1. Campbell N, Reece J, Biology (2008) 8th Edition, Page 163
  2. Madigan M, Martinko J, Dunlap P, Clark D, Biology of Microorganisms (2009) 12th Edition, Page 122

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