Frameshift Mutation

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(Added the references correctly, that is, I added them as explained in the lecture. Removed some stray code.)
 
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A frameshift is a [[Genetic_mutation}genetic mutation]] caused by one or more nucleotides being inserted or deleted in a DNA sequence. As [[Nucleotide|nucleotides]] are translated by the ribosomes in triplet codons, if the number of nucleotides being inserted or deleted is not divisible by three, then the sequence of amino acids downstream from the mutation is completely changed and the end product polypeptide will be changed. These kinds of [[Mutation|mutations]] are called frameshifts as they cause the reading frames of the mRNA to 'shift' in a certain direction and give a different result to the original.  
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A frameshift is a [[genetic mutation|genetic mutation]] caused by one or more nucleotides being inserted or deleted in a DNA sequence. As [[Nucleotide|nucleotides]] are translated by the ribosomes in triplet codons, if the number of nucleotides being inserted or deleted is not divisible by three, then the sequence of amino acids downstream from the mutation is completely changed and the end product polypeptide will be changed. These kinds of [[Mutation|mutations]] are called frameshifts as they cause the reading frames of the mRNA to 'shift' in a certain direction and give a different result to the original.  
  
=== Insertion ===
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=== Insertion ===
  
One or more nucleotides are added to the DNA sequence.
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One or more nucleotides are added to the DNA sequence. This results in a longer triplet codon sequence, which when translated produces a different protein. This most commonly happens in microsatellite regions due to the DNA polymerase slippage<ref name="gen">Genetics Eighth Edition Burlington Jones and Barlett Learning 2012</ref>.
 
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=== Deletion ===
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One or more nucleotides are removed from the DNA sequence
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=== Deletion  ===
  
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One or more nucleotides are removed from the DNA sequence. This makes the DNA sequence smaller which results in a different triplet codon sequence. Then different amino acids wil be synthesized making a different protein with a different function<ref name="gen">Genetics Eighth Edition Burlington Jones and Barlett Learning 2012</ref>
  
 
=== What are the consequences of frameshifts?  ===
 
=== What are the consequences of frameshifts?  ===
  
As the entire nucleotide after the point of mutation is altered, a different sequences of amino acids is coded for and subsequently the protein made will be different to intended. The shifted reading frame changes the point at which the stop codon will occur, therefore the protein could be terminated before it is fully sequenced or the nucleotide sequence will just continue to be [[Translation|translated]] until a [[Stop codon|stop codon]] is reached, which could lead to the protein being longer than intended. These changes to the gene sequence and consequently the proteins being made can have very serious effects on the organism;  
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As the entire nucleotide after the point of mutation is altered, different sequences of amino acids is coded for and subsequently, the protein made will be different to intended. The shifted reading frame changes the point at which the stop codon will occur, therefore the protein could be terminated before it is fully sequenced or the nucleotide sequence will just continue to be [[Translation|translated]] until a [[Stop codon|stop codon]] is reached, which could lead to the protein being longer than intended. These changes to the gene sequence and consequently the proteins being made can have very serious effects on the organism;  
  
*[[Cancer|Cancer]] - Frameshifts are known to be a factor in colorectal cancer and in the case of prostate cancer; prevent apoptosis from occuring, leading to tumour formation.  
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*[[Cancer|Cancer]] - Frameshifts are known to be a factor in colorectal cancer and in the case of prostate cancer; prevent apoptosis from occurring, leading to tumour formation.  
 
*[[Cystic Fibrosis|Cystic Fibrosis ]]- The mutation that causes cystic fibrosis deletes an entire amino acid, causing a frameshift.  
 
*[[Cystic Fibrosis|Cystic Fibrosis ]]- The mutation that causes cystic fibrosis deletes an entire amino acid, causing a frameshift.  
 
*[[Tay-Sachs Disease|Tay-Sachs Disease]] - Starts in the womb and is caused by several frameshift mutations<ref>Hartl et al. (2009) Genetics: Analysis of genes and genomes, 7th Edition - Chapter 10: Pages 368 - 369 and Chapter 14: Pages 515 - 516</ref>.
 
*[[Tay-Sachs Disease|Tay-Sachs Disease]] - Starts in the womb and is caused by several frameshift mutations<ref>Hartl et al. (2009) Genetics: Analysis of genes and genomes, 7th Edition - Chapter 10: Pages 368 - 369 and Chapter 14: Pages 515 - 516</ref>.
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=== References  ===
 
=== References  ===
  
<references /><br>
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<references />

Latest revision as of 09:30, 5 December 2017

A frameshift is a genetic mutation caused by one or more nucleotides being inserted or deleted in a DNA sequence. As nucleotides are translated by the ribosomes in triplet codons, if the number of nucleotides being inserted or deleted is not divisible by three, then the sequence of amino acids downstream from the mutation is completely changed and the end product polypeptide will be changed. These kinds of mutations are called frameshifts as they cause the reading frames of the mRNA to 'shift' in a certain direction and give a different result to the original.

Contents

Insertion

One or more nucleotides are added to the DNA sequence. This results in a longer triplet codon sequence, which when translated produces a different protein. This most commonly happens in microsatellite regions due to the DNA polymerase slippage[1].

Deletion

One or more nucleotides are removed from the DNA sequence. This makes the DNA sequence smaller which results in a different triplet codon sequence. Then different amino acids wil be synthesized making a different protein with a different function[1]

What are the consequences of frameshifts?

As the entire nucleotide after the point of mutation is altered, different sequences of amino acids is coded for and subsequently, the protein made will be different to intended. The shifted reading frame changes the point at which the stop codon will occur, therefore the protein could be terminated before it is fully sequenced or the nucleotide sequence will just continue to be translated until a stop codon is reached, which could lead to the protein being longer than intended. These changes to the gene sequence and consequently the proteins being made can have very serious effects on the organism;

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Genetics Eighth Edition Burlington Jones and Barlett Learning 2012
  2. Hartl et al. (2009) Genetics: Analysis of genes and genomes, 7th Edition - Chapter 10: Pages 368 - 369 and Chapter 14: Pages 515 - 516
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