Fumarate

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Fumarate is a four carbon compound involved in the [[Citric acid cycle|citric acid cycle]] which takes place in the [[Mitochondria|mitochondria]] during [[Aerobic respiration|aerobic respiration]]. It is formed by the oxidation of [[Succinate|succinate]]&nbsp;which is catalysed by&nbsp;[[Succinate dehydrogenase|succinate dehydrogenase]] along with the help of [[FAD|FAD]]&nbsp;which accepts the hydrogens released to form [[FADH2|FADH<sub>2</sub>]]. FAD is used as the hydrogen acceptor instead of [[NAD+|NAD]]<sup>[[NAD+|+]] </sup>because the free energy change is insufficent to reduce NAD<sup>+<ref>Berg, Jeremy M., John L. Tymoczko, and Lubert Stryer. "The Citric Acid Cycle Oxidizes Two-Carbon Units." Biochemistry. Seventh ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2012. 527. Print.</ref></sup>. Fumarate then goes on to form L-malate. This occurs by the hydration of fumarate by fumarase. Fumarase achieves this by the addition of both H<sup>+</sup> and OH<sup>-</sup>, this is known as stereospecific trans addition<ref>Berg, Jeremy M., John L. Tymoczko, and Lubert Stryer. "The Citric Acid Cycle Oxidizes Two-Carbon Units." Biochemistry. Seventh ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2012. 528. Print.</ref>.&nbsp;  
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Fumarate is a four carbon compound involved in the [[Citric acid cycle|citric acid cycle]] which takes place in the [[Mitochondria|mitochondria]] during [[Aerobic respiration|aerobic respiration]]. It is formed by the oxidation of [[Succinate|succinate]]&nbsp;which is catalysed by&nbsp;[[Succinate dehydrogenase|succinate dehydrogenase]] along with the help of [[FAD|FAD]]&nbsp;which accepts the hydrogens released to form [[FADH2|FADH<sub>2</sub>]]. FAD is used as the hydrogen acceptor instead of [[NAD+|NAD]]<sup>[[NAD+|+]] </sup>because the free energy change is insufficent to reduce NAD<sup>+<ref>Berg, Jeremy M., John L. Tymoczko, and Lubert Stryer. "The Citric Acid Cycle Oxidizes Two-Carbon Units." Biochemistry. Seventh ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2012. 527. Print.</ref></sup>. Fumarate then goes on to form L-malate. This occurs by the hydration of fumarate by fumarase. Fumarase achieves this by the addition of both H<sup>+</sup> and OH<sup>-</sup>, this is known as stereospecific trans addition<ref>Berg, Jeremy M., John L. Tymoczko, and Lubert Stryer. "The Citric Acid Cycle Oxidizes Two-Carbon Units." Biochemistry. Seventh ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2012. 528. Print.</ref>.&nbsp;<br>  
 
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=== References  ===
 
=== References  ===
  
 
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Latest revision as of 23:39, 27 November 2014

Fumarate is a four carbon compound involved in the citric acid cycle which takes place in the mitochondria during aerobic respiration. It is formed by the oxidation of succinate which is catalysed by succinate dehydrogenase along with the help of FAD which accepts the hydrogens released to form FADH2. FAD is used as the hydrogen acceptor instead of NAD+ because the free energy change is insufficent to reduce NAD+[1]. Fumarate then goes on to form L-malate. This occurs by the hydration of fumarate by fumarase. Fumarase achieves this by the addition of both H+ and OH-, this is known as stereospecific trans addition[2]

References

  1. Berg, Jeremy M., John L. Tymoczko, and Lubert Stryer. "The Citric Acid Cycle Oxidizes Two-Carbon Units." Biochemistry. Seventh ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2012. 527. Print.
  2. Berg, Jeremy M., John L. Tymoczko, and Lubert Stryer. "The Citric Acid Cycle Oxidizes Two-Carbon Units." Biochemistry. Seventh ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2012. 528. Print.
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