G-protein Coupled Receptor

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The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is a [[Seven|seven]] [[Transmembrane|transmembrane]]&nbsp;spanning [[Receptor|receptor]]&nbsp;that interacts with [[Heterotrimeric G-proteins|G-protein]] in the process of [[Cell signalling|cell signalling]]. It constitutes along with [[Ion-channel-coupled receptor|ion-channel-coupled receptors]] and [[Enzyme-coupled Receptor|enzyme-coupled receptors]] a major class of cell surface-receptor<ref>Alberts, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 5th ed. Garland Science. 2008</ref>.  
 
The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is a [[Seven|seven]] [[Transmembrane|transmembrane]]&nbsp;spanning [[Receptor|receptor]]&nbsp;that interacts with [[Heterotrimeric G-proteins|G-protein]] in the process of [[Cell signalling|cell signalling]]. It constitutes along with [[Ion-channel-coupled receptor|ion-channel-coupled receptors]] and [[Enzyme-coupled Receptor|enzyme-coupled receptors]] a major class of cell surface-receptor<ref>Alberts, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 5th ed. Garland Science. 2008</ref>.  
  
= Classification<br> =
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= Classification<br> =
  
 
Over 800 G-protein-coupled receptors have been identified (more than half of them being [[Olfactory receptor|olfactory receptors]]) and phylogenetic studies carried out<ref>Fredriksson R, Lagerström MC, Lundin LG, Schiöth HB. The G-protein-coupled receptors in the human genome form five main families. Phylogenetic analysis, paralogon groups, and fingerprints.Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jun;63(6):1256-72.</ref>. From these studies the GPCRs can be classified in five main families:&nbsp;  
 
Over 800 G-protein-coupled receptors have been identified (more than half of them being [[Olfactory receptor|olfactory receptors]]) and phylogenetic studies carried out<ref>Fredriksson R, Lagerström MC, Lundin LG, Schiöth HB. The G-protein-coupled receptors in the human genome form five main families. Phylogenetic analysis, paralogon groups, and fingerprints.Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jun;63(6):1256-72.</ref>. From these studies the GPCRs can be classified in five main families:&nbsp;  
  
*'''The rhodopsin receptor family''' of receptors structurally similar to [[Rhodopsin|rhodopsin]], contains the largest number of receptors, including all the olfactory ones. Other members of this family include the [[Adrenergic receptor|adrenergic receptors]], [[Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor|muscarinic acetylcholine receptors ]](mAChRs), [[Glycoprotein-hormone receptor|glycoprotein-hormone receptors]], [[Serotonin|serotonine receptors]] (except the ionotropic 5-HT<sub>3</sub> receptor), [[Prostaglandin|prostaglandin receptors]], [[Thrombin|thrombin receptor]], etc.<br>  
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*'''The rhodopsin receptor family''' of receptors structurally similar to [[Rhodopsin|rhodopsin]], contains the largest number of receptors, including all the olfactory ones. Other members of this family include the [[Adrenergic receptor|adrenergic receptors]], [[Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor|muscarinic acetylcholine receptors ]](mAChRs), [[Glycoprotein-hormone receptor|glycoprotein-hormone receptors]], [[Serotonin|serotonine receptors]] (except the ionotropic 5-HT<sub>3</sub> receptor), [[Prostaglandin|prostaglandin receptors]], [[Thrombin|thrombin receptor]], etc.<br>
*'''The glutamate receptor family '''includes the [[Glutamate|glutamate]] metabotropic receptors, and GABA<sub>B</sub> receptors.<br>  
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*'''The glutamate receptor family '''includes the [[Glutamate|glutamate]] metabotropic receptors, and GABA<sub>B</sub> receptors.<br>
*'''The secetrin receptor family''' with the receptor for the peptide hormone [[Secretine|secretine]] as a prototype, it also includes the receptor for [[Glucagon|glucagon]], [[Calcitonin|calcitonin]] and [[Parathyroid hormone|parathyroid hormone]].<br>  
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*'''The secetrin receptor family''' with the receptor for the peptide hormone [[Secretine|secretine]] as a prototype, it also includes the receptor for [[Glucagon|glucagon]], [[Calcitonin|calcitonin]] and [[Parathyroid hormone|parathyroid hormone]].<br>
*'''The adhesion receptor family''' characterized by the presence of motifs in the N-terminus that are likely to be related to cell adhesion. <br>  
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*'''The adhesion receptor family''' characterized by the presence of motifs in the N-terminus that are likely to be related to cell adhesion. <br>
 
*'''The Frizzled/Taste2 receptor family''' includes receptors important for development (frizzled branch) and the taste receptors (TAS2 branch).<br>
 
*'''The Frizzled/Taste2 receptor family''' includes receptors important for development (frizzled branch) and the taste receptors (TAS2 branch).<br>
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= Structure =
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Along with the seven transmembrane core structure, the G Protein Coupled Receptor often have large receptor domains in the N-terminus on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. Binding of a signal molecule to this receptor domain (or indeed the extracellular part of the transmembrane domains) cause a conformational change in the transmembrane domain and intracellular C-terminus. This triggers the action of a [[G-proteins|G-protein]] which binds guanyl nucleotides. (Berg, J.M., Stryer)
  
 
= References  =
 
= References  =
  
<references /><br>
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<references />&nbsp;Berg, JM, Biochemistry, 6th Edition (2007), W.H. Freeman and Company, New York<br>

Revision as of 15:41, 16 November 2010

The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is a seven transmembrane spanning receptor that interacts with G-protein in the process of cell signalling. It constitutes along with ion-channel-coupled receptors and enzyme-coupled receptors a major class of cell surface-receptor[1].

Classification

Over 800 G-protein-coupled receptors have been identified (more than half of them being olfactory receptors) and phylogenetic studies carried out[2]. From these studies the GPCRs can be classified in five main families: 

Structure

Along with the seven transmembrane core structure, the G Protein Coupled Receptor often have large receptor domains in the N-terminus on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. Binding of a signal molecule to this receptor domain (or indeed the extracellular part of the transmembrane domains) cause a conformational change in the transmembrane domain and intracellular C-terminus. This triggers the action of a G-protein which binds guanyl nucleotides. (Berg, J.M., Stryer)

References

  1. Alberts, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 5th ed. Garland Science. 2008
  2. Fredriksson R, Lagerström MC, Lundin LG, Schiöth HB. The G-protein-coupled receptors in the human genome form five main families. Phylogenetic analysis, paralogon groups, and fingerprints.Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jun;63(6):1256-72.
 Berg, JM, Biochemistry, 6th Edition (2007), W.H. Freeman and Company, New York
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