G-protein Coupled Receptor

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A [[Seven|seven]] [[Transmembrane|transmembrane]] spanning [[Receptor|receptor]] that interacts with [[Heterotrimeric G-proteins|G-proteins]]. [[Heterotrimeric G-proteins|G-proteins]] are composed of three subunits: alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ). In the inactive state, the α subunit binds to [[GDP|GDP]], and in the active state, [[GDP|GDP]] is released and [[GTP|GTP]] binds. The α subunit disocciates from the βγ complex, and then both can activate separate [[Effectors|effectors]].
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The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is a [[Seven|seven]] [[Transmembrane|transmembrane]]&nbsp;spanning [[Receptor|receptor]]&nbsp;that interacts with [[Heterotrimeric G-proteins|G-protein]] in the process of [[Cell signalling|cell signalling]]. It constitutes along with [[Ion-channel-coupled receptor|ion-channel-coupled receptors]] and [[Enzyme-coupled-receptor|enzyme-coupled-receptors]] a major class of cell surface-receptor<ref>Alberts, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 5th ed. Garland Science. 2008</ref>.
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= Classification<br>  =
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Over 800 G-protein-coupled receptors have been identified (more than half of them being [[Olfactory receptor|olfactory receptors]]) and phylogenetic studies carried out<ref>Fredriksson R, Lagerström MC, Lundin LG, Schiöth HB. The G-protein-coupled receptors in the human genome form five main families. Phylogenetic analysis, paralogon groups, and fingerprints.Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jun;63(6):1256-72.</ref>. From these studies the GPCRs can be classified in five main families:&nbsp;  
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*'''The rhodopsin receptor family''' of receptors structurally similar to [[Rhodopsin|rhodopsin]], contains the largest number of receptors, including all the olfactory ones. Other members of this family include the [[Adrenergic receptor|adrenergic receptors]], [[Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor|muscarinic acetylcholine receptors ]](mAChRs), [[Glycoprotein-hormone receptor|glycoprotein-hormone receptors]], [[Serotonin|serotonine receptors]] (except the ionotropic 5-HT<sub>3</sub> receptor), [[Prostaglandin|prostaglandin receptors]], [[Thrombin|thrombin receptor]], etc.<br>
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*'''The glutamate receptor family '''includes the [[Glutamate|glutamate]] metabotropic receptors, and GABA<sub>B</sub> receptors.<br>
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*'''The secetrin receptor family''' with the receptor for the peptide hormone [[Secretine|secretine]] as a prototype, it also includes the receptor for [[Glucagon|glucagon]], [[Calcitonin|calcitonin]] and [[Parathyroid hormone|parathyroid hormone]].<br>
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*'''The adhesion receptor family''' characterized by the presence of motifs in the N-terminus that are likely to be related to cell adhesion. <br>
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*'''The Frizzled/Taste2 receptor family''' includes receptors important for development (frizzled branch) and the taste receptors (TAS2 branch).<br>
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= References  =
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<references /><br>

Revision as of 15:34, 14 November 2010

The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is a seven transmembrane spanning receptor that interacts with G-protein in the process of cell signalling. It constitutes along with ion-channel-coupled receptors and enzyme-coupled-receptors a major class of cell surface-receptor[1].

Classification

Over 800 G-protein-coupled receptors have been identified (more than half of them being olfactory receptors) and phylogenetic studies carried out[2]. From these studies the GPCRs can be classified in five main families: 


References

  1. Alberts, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 5th ed. Garland Science. 2008
  2. Fredriksson R, Lagerström MC, Lundin LG, Schiöth HB. The G-protein-coupled receptors in the human genome form five main families. Phylogenetic analysis, paralogon groups, and fingerprints.Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Jun;63(6):1256-72.

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