Genetic mutation- this term indicates an alteration to base sequence in DNA of an organism which results in a mutant allele of a gene i.e. an allele that occurs in less than 1% of population. The change is heritable and can be passed on to offspring if fixed into the parental genome. Mutations can vary depending on the type of genomic alteration:
- rearrangement of bases.
To investigate the events leading to mutation we can look at the 3 types of mutagenesis process:
- spontaneous (no mutation causing agent)
- induced (a foreign genome introduced e.g.in the laboratory)
- directed (in vitro change to the genome).
We can calculate the rate of mutation occurance using an equation from Poisson distribution: