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Glucose is a monosaccharide with the chemical formula of C6H12O6. It is involved in many biological processes including glycolysis. Glycolysis involves the conversion of glucose, to pyruvate. This process is fundamental to respiration. Glucose can form a glycosidic bond with another glucose to form a disaccharide called maltose through a condensation reaction. Glucose monomers can be joined by α-1,4- glycosidic bond to form a polysaccharide molecule known as starch.

In open chain glucose Carbon 1 (the carbonyl carbon) is not chirally active. However in the ring structure, it becomes asymmetric, allowing it to form two ring structures: α-D-glucopyranose and β-D-glucopyranose[1].

Image taken from:[2]

The main family of transporters are known as the GLUT family with 5 known variants all with different properties and found in different tissues.


  1. Berg J., Tymoczko J and Stryer L. (2012) Biochemistry, 7th edition, New York: WH Freeman. pg 333
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