Glycolysis

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Glycolysis is the [[Metabolic process|metabolic process]] by which [[Glucose|glucose]] is converted to [[Pyruvate|pyruvate]].&nbsp; The process of glycolysis is important in producing energy for the [[Cell|cell]], particularly in [[Anaerobic|anaerobic]] conditions. &nbsp;It occurs in the cytosol of the cell. &nbsp;The word glycolysis literally means "sugar splitting" or "sugar breaking"; this accurately describes the process of glycolysis, in which a 6-carbon sugar [[Molecule|molecule]] is broken into two 3-carbon molecules. There are two stages in glycolysis which are energy investing stage and energy generating stage. &nbsp;Glycolysis consists of ten separate reactions, each catalysed by a different [[Enzyme|enzyme]]. Glycolysis is regulated by three different control enzymes. The first of these enzymes is [[Hexokinase|hexokinase]] which [[Phosphorylation|phosphorylates]] [[Glucose|glucose]], turning it into [[Glucose-6-phosphate|glucose-6-phosphate]].&nbsp;Therefore making it less permeable trapping it inside the cell and also making it more reactive. The second is [[Phosphofructokinase|phosphofructokinase]]. This enzyme allows the production [[Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate|fructose-1,6-bisphosphate]] and is the rate-limiting step. The final control enzyme is [[Pyruvate kinase|pyruvate kinase]] which controls the rate of production of [[Pyruvate|pyruvate]], which is the final product of glycolysis. For each [[Molecule|molecule]] of [[Glucose|glucose]] that goes through the process of glycolysis, there is a net gain of 2 [[ATP|ATP]] molecules, 2 [[NADH|NADH]] [[Molecule|molecules]]&nbsp;and&nbsp;2 [[Water|water molecules]]&nbsp;<ref>Berg J., Tymoczko J and Stryer L. (2007) Biochemistry, 6th edition, New York, W. H. Freeman</ref><ref>Alberts et al., 2008, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th edition, pg 88-91, Garland Science, New York.</ref>.&nbsp;<br>  
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Glycolysis is the [[Metabolic process|metabolic process]] by which [[Glucose|glucose]] is converted to [[Pyruvate|pyruvate]].&nbsp; It is the first of the three stages of carbohydrate metabolism. The process of glycolysis is important in producing energy for the [[Cell|cell]], particularly in [[Anaerobic|anaerobic]] conditions. &nbsp;It occurs in the cytosol of the cell. &nbsp;The word glycolysis is of Greek origin,  where 'glykos' means sweet, and 'lysis' means splitting. Hence, Glycolysis literally means "sugar splitting" or "sugar breaking"; this accurately describes the process of glycolysis, in which a 6-carbon sugar [[Molecule|molecule]] is broken into two 3-carbon molecules. There are three stages in glycolysis which are energy investing stage, splitting stage and energy yielding stage. &nbsp;Glycolysis consists of ten separate reactions, each catalysed by a different [[Enzyme|enzyme]]. Glycolysis is regulated by three different control enzymes. The first of these enzymes is [[Hexokinase|hexokinase]] which [[Phosphorylation|phosphorylates]] [[Glucose|glucose]], turning it into [[Glucose-6-phosphate|glucose-6-phosphate]].&nbsp;Therefore making it less permeable trapping it inside the cell and also making it more reactive. The second is [[Phosphofructokinase|phosphofructokinase]]. This enzyme allows the production [[Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate|fructose-1,6-bisphosphate]] and is the rate-limiting step. The final control enzyme is [[Pyruvate kinase|pyruvate kinase]] which controls the rate of production of [[Pyruvate|pyruvate]], which is the final product of glycolysis. For each [[Molecule|molecule]] of [[Glucose|glucose]] that goes through the process of glycolysis, there is a net gain of 2 [[ATP|ATP]] molecules, 2 [[NADH|NADH]] [[Molecule|molecules]]&nbsp;and&nbsp;2 [[Water|water molecules]]&nbsp;<ref>Berg J., Tymoczko J and Stryer L. (2007) Biochemistry, 6th edition, New York, W. H. Freeman</ref><ref>Alberts et al., 2008, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th edition, pg 88-91, Garland Science, New York.</ref>.&nbsp;<br>  
  
 
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=== References  ===
  
 
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Revision as of 18:54, 27 November 2014

Glycolysis is the metabolic process by which glucose is converted to pyruvate.  It is the first of the three stages of carbohydrate metabolism. The process of glycolysis is important in producing energy for the cell, particularly in anaerobic conditions.  It occurs in the cytosol of the cell.  The word glycolysis is of Greek origin, where 'glykos' means sweet, and 'lysis' means splitting. Hence, Glycolysis literally means "sugar splitting" or "sugar breaking"; this accurately describes the process of glycolysis, in which a 6-carbon sugar molecule is broken into two 3-carbon molecules. There are three stages in glycolysis which are energy investing stage, splitting stage and energy yielding stage.  Glycolysis consists of ten separate reactions, each catalysed by a different enzyme. Glycolysis is regulated by three different control enzymes. The first of these enzymes is hexokinase which phosphorylates glucose, turning it into glucose-6-phosphate. Therefore making it less permeable trapping it inside the cell and also making it more reactive. The second is phosphofructokinase. This enzyme allows the production fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and is the rate-limiting step. The final control enzyme is pyruvate kinase which controls the rate of production of pyruvate, which is the final product of glycolysis. For each molecule of glucose that goes through the process of glycolysis, there is a net gain of 2 ATP molecules, 2 NADH molecules and 2 water molecules [1][2]

References

  1. Berg J., Tymoczko J and Stryer L. (2007) Biochemistry, 6th edition, New York, W. H. Freeman
  2. Alberts et al., 2008, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th edition, pg 88-91, Garland Science, New York.
 
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