High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE)

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High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a life-threatening illness which occurs at high altitude. It develops from acute mountain sickness, more commonly known as altitude sickness <ref>Swapnil J. Paralikar, High Altitude Pulmonary Edema: Clinical features, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment. Indian Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 2012; 16(2): 59-62</ref>. At higher altitudes the air pressure decreases and so the oxygen atoms are more spread out in air, this means that with each breath less oxygen is breathed in. <br>High altitude pulmonary edema occurs at above 3000m due to people ascending in altitude too quickly without proper acclimatisation. It is caused by the alveoli in the lungs becoming [[Hypoxia|hypoxic]] which leads to the[[Vasoconstriction|vasoconstriction ]]of the pulmonary blood vessels . This vasoconstriction causes an increase in capillary pressure and in turn an increase in hydrostatic pressure<ref>Swapnil J. Paralikar, High Altitude Pulmonary Edema: Clinical features, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment. Indian Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 2012; 16(2): 59-62</ref>. The increase in capillary and hydrostatic pressure causes damage to capillary walls which leads to the edema. This negatively effects oxygen delivery as there is now an increased diffusion distance <ref>Peter Bärtsch, Heimo Mairbäurl, Marco Maggiorini, Erik R. Swenson, Physiological aspects of high-altitude pulmonary edema. Journal of applied physiology, March 2005; 98(3):1101-1110</ref>.<br><u>Symptoms<ref>NHS, Altitude Sickness, Aphttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3617508/ril 2017, cited 21/10/2017</ref>&nbsp;:</u><br>The symptoms of HAPE include two or more of the following:<br>- Blue skin<br>- Trouble with breathing, even at rest<br>- Tightness of the chest<br>- Cough<br>- Tiredness and Weakness<br>- Rapid heart rate (tachycardia)<br>- Rapid shallow breathing  
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High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a life-threatening illness which occurs at high altitude. It develops from acute mountain sickness, more commonly known as altitude sickness <ref>Swapnil J. Paralikar, High Altitude Pulmonary Edema: Clinical features, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment. Indian Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 2012; 16(2): 59-62</ref>. At higher altitudes the air pressure decreases and so the oxygen atoms are more spread out in air, this means that with each breath less oxygen is breathed in.  
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*High altitude pulmonary edema occurs at above 3000m due to people ascending in altitude too quickly without proper acclimatisation. It is caused by the alveoli in the lungs becoming [[Hypoxia|hypoxic]] which leads to the [[Vasoconstriction|vasoconstriction]] of the pulmonary blood vessels . This vasoconstriction causes an increase in capillary pressure and in turn an increase in hydrostatic pressure<ref>Swapnil J. Paralikar, High Altitude Pulmonary Edema: Clinical features, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment. Indian Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 2012; 16(2): 59-62</ref>. The increase in capillary and hydrostatic pressure causes damage to capillary walls which leads to the edema. This negatively effects oxygen delivery as there is now an increased diffusion distance <ref>Peter Bärtsch, Heimo Mairbäurl, Marco Maggiorini, Erik R. Swenson, Physiological aspects of high-altitude pulmonary edema. Journal of applied physiology, March 2005; 98(3):1101-1110</ref>.
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<u>Symptoms<ref>NHS, Altitude Sickness, Aphttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3617508/ril 2017, cited 21/10/2017</ref>&nbsp;:</u><br>The symptoms of HAPE include two or more of the following:<br>- Blue skin<br>- Trouble with breathing, even at rest<br>- Tightness of the chest<br>- Cough<br>- Tiredness and Weakness<br>- Rapid heart rate (tachycardia)<br>- Rapid shallow breathing  
  
 
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Revision as of 18:19, 16 November 2017

High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a life-threatening illness which occurs at high altitude. It develops from acute mountain sickness, more commonly known as altitude sickness [1]. At higher altitudes the air pressure decreases and so the oxygen atoms are more spread out in air, this means that with each breath less oxygen is breathed in.

Symptoms[4] :
The symptoms of HAPE include two or more of the following:
- Blue skin
- Trouble with breathing, even at rest
- Tightness of the chest
- Cough
- Tiredness and Weakness
- Rapid heart rate (tachycardia)
- Rapid shallow breathing


If an individual is experiencing these symptoms, they should either seek hyperbaric treatment, supplement oxygen or descend to a lower altitude as quickly as possible[5]to prevent the development of HAPE to the more serious high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) [6].



References:

  1. Swapnil J. Paralikar, High Altitude Pulmonary Edema: Clinical features, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment. Indian Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 2012; 16(2): 59-62
  2. Swapnil J. Paralikar, High Altitude Pulmonary Edema: Clinical features, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment. Indian Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 2012; 16(2): 59-62
  3. Peter Bärtsch, Heimo Mairbäurl, Marco Maggiorini, Erik R. Swenson, Physiological aspects of high-altitude pulmonary edema. Journal of applied physiology, March 2005; 98(3):1101-1110
  4. NHS, Altitude Sickness, Aphttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3617508/ril 2017, cited 21/10/2017
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3617508/
  6. Swapnil J. Paralikar, High Altitude Pulmonary Edema: Clinical features, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment. Indian Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 2012; 16(2): 59-62

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