Horizontal gene transfer

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Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) is a transmission of gene by different related species of organism. It is also known as Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT). Homo sapiens received the HGT from the other organism like bacteria in the ancient time. The evolution of Horizontal Gene Transfer emmerged the present of plasmid (Extra genetic materials), bacteriophages and transposons. This will cause the bacteria to develop resistance towards antibiotic.The HGT is transfered by three mechanism which are bacterial conjugation, transformation and transduction [1][2].

Explanation of the 3 Mechanisms:

  1. Conjugation- is the transfer of genes from a bacterial donor cell to another bacterial recipient cell by direct cell to cell interaction for example via. sex pilus.
  2. Transformation- is the ability of a bacterial cell to obtain the genes from a cell-free naked DNA from a dead bacterial cell (where the cell is broken down so the gene is leaked out from the cell) or any other sources.
  3. Transduction- is the transfer of genes by a bacteriophage (bacterial virus) from one bacterium to multiple/single bacterial recipient cells.  


  1. James R. Brown. (2003) 'Nature Reviews Genetics'.
  2. Joanne M. Wiley et al. (2014) 'Prescotts's Microbiology' -- Ninth Edition. New York, Mc Graw- Hill International Edition.
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