Inositol phospholipid signalling pathway

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The Inositol signalling pathway is activated when a signal [[Molecule|molecule]] binds to the receptor of a [[Trimeric G-protein|trimeric G protein]]<span style="font-size: 11.0667px;">.</span>The binding of the signal molecule causes the [[GDP|GDP]] bound to the G protein to exchanged for [[GTP|GTP]], this induces a conformational change and the alpha subunit dissociates itself from the beta and gamma subunits. The alpha subunit then activates [[Phospholipase C|phospholipase C]]. The phospholipase C then cleaves [[Phosphoinositol 4,5- biphosphate|phosphoinositol 4,5- biphosphate]] (PIP<sub>2</sub>); producing [[Diacylglycerol|Diacylglycerol]] (DAG) and [[Inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate|Inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate]] (IP<sub>3</sub>). DAG remains embedded in the [[Phospholipid membrane|phos]][[Phospholipid membrane|pholipid membrane]], whereas IP<sub>3</sub> moves into the [[Cytoplasm|cytoplasm]]. IP<sub>3</sub> then binds to IP<sub>3</sub> gated Ca<sup>2+</sup> release channels on the membrane of the [[Endoplasmic reticulum|endoplasmic reticulum]], this in turn releases Ca<sup>2+</sup>&nbsp;ions, which binds to [[Protein Kinase C|Protein Kinase C]] (PKC). The DAG also binds to PKC, which consequently activates the Protein Kinase C. The PKC then phosphorylates various proteins in order to amplify the signal.&nbsp;
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The Inositol signalling pathway is activated when a signal [[Molecule|molecule]] binds to the receptor of a [[Trimeric G-protein|trimeric G protein]]. The binding of the signal molecule causes the [[GDP|GDP]] bound to the G protein to exchanged for [[GTP|GTP]], this induces a conformational change and the alpha subunit dissociates itself from the beta and gamma subunits. The alpha subunit then activates [[Phospholipase C|phospholipase C]]. The phospholipase C then cleaves [[Phosphoinositol 4,5- biphosphate|phosphoinositol 4,5- biphosphate]] (PIP<sub>2</sub>); producing [[Diacylglycerol|Diacylglycerol]] (DAG) and [[Inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate|Inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate]] (IP<sub>3</sub>). DAG remains embedded in the [[Phospholipid membrane|phos]][[Phospholipid membrane|pholipid membrane]], whereas IP<sub>3</sub> moves into the [[Cytoplasm|cytoplasm]]. IP<sub>3</sub> then binds to IP<sub>3</sub> gated Ca<sup>2+</sup> release channels on the membrane of the [[Endoplasmic reticulum|endoplasmic reticulum]], this in turn releases Ca<sup>2+</sup> ions, which binds to [[Protein Kinase C|Protein Kinase C]] (PKC). The DAG also binds to PKC, which consequently activates the Protein Kinase C. The PKC then phosphorylates various proteins in order to amplify the signal<ref>Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Morgan D, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P. Molecular Biology of THE CELL. 6th edition. New York: Garland Science, Taylor &amp;amp; Francis Group, LLC, an informa bussiness. 2015</ref>.
  
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=== References;  ===
  
 
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'''References&nbsp;<u></u>'''
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Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Morgan D, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P. Molecular Biology of THE CELL. 6th edition. New York: Garland Science, Taylor &amp; Francis Group, LLC, an informa bussiness. 2015
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Latest revision as of 21:17, 6 December 2018

The Inositol signalling pathway is activated when a signal molecule binds to the receptor of a trimeric G protein. The binding of the signal molecule causes the GDP bound to the G protein to exchanged for GTP, this induces a conformational change and the alpha subunit dissociates itself from the beta and gamma subunits. The alpha subunit then activates phospholipase C. The phospholipase C then cleaves phosphoinositol 4,5- biphosphate (PIP2); producing Diacylglycerol (DAG) and Inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate (IP3). DAG remains embedded in the phospholipid membrane, whereas IP3 moves into the cytoplasm. IP3 then binds to IP3 gated Ca2+ release channels on the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, this in turn releases Ca2+ ions, which binds to Protein Kinase C (PKC). The DAG also binds to PKC, which consequently activates the Protein Kinase C. The PKC then phosphorylates various proteins in order to amplify the signal[1].

References;

  1. Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Morgan D, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P. Molecular Biology of THE CELL. 6th edition. New York: Garland Science, Taylor &amp; Francis Group, LLC, an informa bussiness. 2015
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