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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are glycosylated phospholipids that are found in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria[1]. They assist in the bacteria's function of protecting against foreign materials such as antibiotics by blocking them from entering the cell[2]. Although LPS aids the bacteria in defending against antibiotics, they can lead to the production of new antibiotics that can target the processes that lead to the formation of LPS in the outer membrane: the outer membrane will not be as stable or effective as normal if the LPS are not correctly synthesised[3].


  1. Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Morgan D, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P. Molecular Biology of The Cell. 6th Ed, New York: Garland Science. 2014
  2. Miller SI. Antibiotic Resistance and Regulation of the Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Barrier by Host Innate Immune Molecules. 2016 [cited 25/11/18]; Available from:
  3. Epand RM, Walker C, Epand RF, Magarvey NA. Molecular mechanisms of membrane targeting antibiotics. 2015 [cited 25/11/18]; Available from:
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