Mitochondria

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[[Image:Mitochondrian.PNG|right|211x187px|A cross-section of a mitochondrion under an electron microscope]]&nbsp;Mitochondria (singular- Mitochondrion) are membrane bound [[Organelles|organelles]], that carry out [[Oxidative phosphorylation|oxidative phosphorylation]], to produce [[ATP|ATP]].&nbsp;What is more, mitochondria produce the majority&nbsp;of [[ATP|ATP]] used by [[Eukaryotic|eukaryotic]] [[Organism|organisms]]&nbsp;and are&nbsp;often referred to&nbsp;as the power houses of the cell. Furthermore,&nbsp;due to&nbsp;the fact that mitochondria&nbsp;are the site [[ATP synthesis|ATP synthesis]],&nbsp;there is&nbsp;often a linear&nbsp;relationship&nbsp;between the number of mitochondria in a [[Cell|cell]]&nbsp;and the&nbsp;cells&nbsp;[[ATP|ATP]] requirements e.g.&nbsp;a [[Muscle|muscle]] cell uses vast amounts of [[ATP|ATP]] and thus&nbsp;often contains many mitochondria to adhere to&nbsp;this requirement and maintain function. A further point that must&nbsp;be brought to&nbsp;attention is that mitochondria contain there own [[DNA|DNA]] (mostly circular), referred to as [[MDNA|mDNA]]. The size of mitochondrial [[DNA|DNA&nbsp;varies]] between species. Human [[MDNA|mitochondrial DNA]]&nbsp;consists of 16,569 [[Base|base]] pairs coding for 13 [[Proteins|prote]][[Proteins|ins]]. Mitochondria are semiautonomous [[Organelles|organelles]], depending on the host cell for their existence&nbsp;<ref>Berg J.M, Tymoczko J.L., Stryer L (2001) Biochemistry, 5th edition, New York: WH Freeman. p492</ref><ref>Molecular Biology of THE CELL, Fifth Edition, Alberts, Johnson, Lewis, Raff, Roberts, Watter (2008), Chapter 1 Cells and Genomes, Figure 1-33 A mitiochondrion, Page 28</ref>. <br>  
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[[Image:Mitochondrian.PNG|right|211x187px|A cross-section of a mitochondrion under an electron microscope]]Mitochondria (singular- Mitochondrion) are membrane bound [[Organelles|organelles]], that carry out [[Oxidative phosphorylation|oxidative phosphorylation]], to produce [[ATP|ATP]].&nbsp;What is more, mitochondria produce the majority&nbsp;of [[ATP|ATP]] used by [[Eukaryotic|eukaryotic]] [[Organism|organisms]]&nbsp;and are&nbsp;often referred to&nbsp;as the power houses of the cell. Furthermore,&nbsp;due to&nbsp;the fact that mitochondria&nbsp;are the site [[ATP synthesis|ATP synthesis]],&nbsp;there is&nbsp;often a linear&nbsp;relationship&nbsp;between the number of mitochondria in a [[Cell|cell]]&nbsp;and the&nbsp;cells&nbsp;[[ATP|ATP]] requirements e.g.&nbsp;a [[Muscle|muscle]] cell uses vast amounts of [[ATP|ATP]] and thus&nbsp;often contains many mitochondria to adhere to&nbsp;this requirement and maintain function. A further point that must&nbsp;be brought to&nbsp;attention is that mitochondria contain there own [[DNA|DNA]] (mostly circular), referred to as [[MDNA|mDNA]]. The size of mitochondrial [[DNA|DNA&nbsp;varies]] between species. Human [[MDNA|mitochondrial DNA]]&nbsp;consists of 16,569 [[Base|base]] pairs coding for 13 [[Proteins|prote]][[Proteins|ins]]. Mitochondria are semiautonomous [[Organelles|organelles]], depending on the host cell for their existence&nbsp;<ref>Berg J.M, Tymoczko J.L., Stryer L (2001) Biochemistry, 5th edition, New York: WH Freeman. p492</ref><ref>Molecular Biology of THE CELL, Fifth Edition, Alberts, Johnson, Lewis, Raff, Roberts, Watter (2008), Chapter 1 Cells and Genomes, Figure 1-33 A mitiochondrion, Page 28</ref>. <br>  
  
 
=== Structure  ===
 
=== Structure  ===
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*Contain a matrix- large overall internal compartment.<br>
 
*Contain a matrix- large overall internal compartment.<br>
  
In sexual reproduction only the female [[gamete|gamete]] ([[ovum|ovum]]) has mitochondria when the gametes eventually fertilise, this is because the male gamete (sperm) draws upon all of its mitohondria for locomotion, to aid its travel to the ovum (egg). Furthermore, mitochondria in relation to the structure of the [[sperm|sperm]], is&nbsp;wrapped tightly around the [[Flagellum|flagellum]]&nbsp;in the sperm and is fixed in this position,&nbsp;to enable the mitochondira to&nbsp;comply&nbsp;with the sperm's unusually&nbsp;high [[ATP|ATP]] consumption&nbsp;<ref>Bruce Alberts (et al)-2007: pg815</ref>.
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In sexual reproduction only the female [[Gamete|gamete]] ([[Ovum|ovum]]) has mitochondria when the gametes eventually fertilise, this is because the male gamete (sperm) draws upon all of its mitohondria for locomotion, to aid its travel to the ovum (egg). Furthermore, mitochondria in relation to the structure of the [[Sperm|sperm]], is&nbsp;wrapped tightly around the [[Flagellum|flagellum]]&nbsp;in the sperm and is fixed in this position,&nbsp;to enable the mitochondira to&nbsp;comply&nbsp;with the sperm's unusually&nbsp;high [[ATP|ATP]] consumption&nbsp;<ref>Bruce Alberts (et al)-2007: pg815</ref>.  
  
 
=== References  ===
 
=== References  ===
  
 
<references />
 
<references />

Revision as of 08:14, 22 October 2012

A cross-section of a mitochondrion under an electron microscope
Mitochondria (singular- Mitochondrion) are membrane bound organelles, that carry out oxidative phosphorylation, to produce ATP. What is more, mitochondria produce the majority of ATP used by eukaryotic organisms and are often referred to as the power houses of the cell. Furthermore, due to the fact that mitochondria are the site ATP synthesis, there is often a linear relationship between the number of mitochondria in a cell and the cells ATP requirements e.g. a muscle cell uses vast amounts of ATP and thus often contains many mitochondria to adhere to this requirement and maintain function. A further point that must be brought to attention is that mitochondria contain there own DNA (mostly circular), referred to as mDNA. The size of mitochondrial DNA varies between species. Human mitochondrial DNA consists of 16,569 base pairs coding for 13 proteins. Mitochondria are semiautonomous organelles, depending on the host cell for their existence [1][2].

Structure

Mitochondria:

In sexual reproduction only the female gamete (ovum) has mitochondria when the gametes eventually fertilise, this is because the male gamete (sperm) draws upon all of its mitohondria for locomotion, to aid its travel to the ovum (egg). Furthermore, mitochondria in relation to the structure of the sperm, is wrapped tightly around the flagellum in the sperm and is fixed in this position, to enable the mitochondira to comply with the sperm's unusually high ATP consumption [3].

References

  1. Berg J.M, Tymoczko J.L., Stryer L (2001) Biochemistry, 5th edition, New York: WH Freeman. p492
  2. Molecular Biology of THE CELL, Fifth Edition, Alberts, Johnson, Lewis, Raff, Roberts, Watter (2008), Chapter 1 Cells and Genomes, Figure 1-33 A mitiochondrion, Page 28
  3. Bruce Alberts (et al)-2007: pg815
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