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A neuron is a cell that transmit electrical signals. There are 3 types of neurons: motor, sensory and relay neuron. There are approximately 1011 neuron cells in the central nervous system of an individual. A typical neuron consists of a cell body, dendrites, axon and an axon terminal [1].

A neuron transmits electrical signals by action potentials. These are triggered when the cell receives a chemical signal, such as the one from Acetylcholine binding to the post synaptic membrane, causing Sodium voltage-gated ion channels to open and Sodium to diffuse down its concentration gradient into the neuron causing depolarisation (an electrical signal).


  1. Developmental Biology, 8th Edition, Scott F. Gilbert, Pg 394
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