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A neurone is a specialized cell which transmits electrochemical impulses in the form of action potentials and graded potentials in order to deliver messages from sensory receptors to effector cells via the nervous system.

Structure and Function

Neurons have 3 main parts: the dendrites, the axon and the cell body[1].

Dendrites are responsible for receiving signals from other neurons, and then passing that information through the cell body onto the axon[2].

The cell body produces the proteins needed and provides energy for the rest of the cell. It contains all the organelles of the cell, including the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and others[3]. Graded potentials pass through the cell body and then onto the axon.

The axon is responsible for carrying the electrochemical signal (in the form of an action potential) down the length of the cell[4]. The axon ends with axon terminals, which transfer the electrical signal to a chemical one, so the signal can be passed onto another neuron or an effector cell through the synapse using various neurotransmitters[5].


  1. verywell. Neurons and Their Role in the Nervous System. 2017. Cited 24/11/17. Available from:
  2. New World Encyclopedia. Dendrite. 2017. Cited 24/11/17. Available from:
  3. cerebromente. Parts of the nerve cell and their functions. Cited 24/11/17. Available from:
  4. General Psychology. The Neuron. 2009. Cited 24/11/17. Available from:
  5. biology online. Axon terminals. 2014. Cited 24/11/17. Available from:
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