Operon

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&nbsp;Commonly known to exist in the [[Genome|genomes]] of [[Prokaryotes|prokaryotes]] since the 1940s, an operon is a unit of [[DNA|DNA]], comprised of a number of clustered [[Gene|genes]] that are often related by function<ref>Encyclopedia Britannica, Operon. Available at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/429974/operon</ref>. The [[Gene|genes]] in operons are [[Transcription|transcribed]] together by a single [[Promoter|promoter]]&nbsp;into the same [[MRNA|mRNA]] strand, before they are [[Translation|translated]] into separate [[Protein|proteins]]&nbsp;[[Promoter|<ref>Sadava, David et al. (2009). Life: The Science of Biology (9th ed.). Macmillan. p. 349. ISBN 9781429219624.</ref>]], allowing co-ordination of [[Protein synthesis|protein synthesis]] in response to environmental factors, thereby conserving the [[Prokaryotes|cells]] energy<ref>↑ Encyclopedia Britannica, Operon. Available at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/429974/operon</ref>. [[Gene|Genes]] in an operon are thus either [[Transcription|transcribed]] together or not at all, such as the&nbsp;[[Lac operon|lac operon]] in E. coli that is used to [[Hydrolysis|hydrolyse]] [[Lactose|lactose]] into [[Glucose|glucose]] and&nbsp;[[Galactose|galactose]].
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[[Image:Lac Operon.GIF|frame|right|Lac Operon.GIF]]  
  
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Commonly known to exist in the [[Genome|genomes]] of [[Prokaryotes|prokaryotes]] since the 1940s, an operon is a unit of [[DNA|DNA]], comprised of a number of clustered [[Gene|genes]] that are often related by function<ref>Encyclopedia Britannica, Operon. Available at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/429974/operon</ref>. The [[Gene|genes]] in operons are [[Transcription|transcribed]] together by a single [[Promoter|promoter]] into the same [[MRNA|mRNA]] strand, before they are [[Translation|translated]] into separate [[Protein|proteins]]<ref>Lodish, Harvey; Zipursky, Lawrence; Matsudaira, Paul; Baltimore, David; Darnel, James (2000). "Chapter 9: Molecular Definition of a Gene". Molecular Cell Biology. W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-3136-2</ref>, allowing co-ordination of [[Protein synthesis|protein synthesis]] in response to environmental factors, thereby conserving the [[Prokaryotes|cells]] energy<ref>↑ Encyclopedia Britannica, Operon. Available at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/429974/operon</ref>. [[Gene|Genes]] in an operon are thus either [[Transcription|transcribed]] together or not at all, such as the [[Lac operon|lac operon]] in E. coli that is used to [[Hydrolysis|hydrolyse]] [[Lactose|lactose]] into [[Glucose|glucose]] and [[Galactose|galactose]]. This genes are thoroughly studied because of the positive activator (allolactose) and negative activator of the gene.
  
=== References ===
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=== References ===
  
 
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Latest revision as of 20:37, 6 December 2017

Lac Operon.GIF

Commonly known to exist in the genomes of prokaryotes since the 1940s, an operon is a unit of DNA, comprised of a number of clustered genes that are often related by function[1]. The genes in operons are transcribed together by a single promoter into the same mRNA strand, before they are translated into separate proteins[2], allowing co-ordination of protein synthesis in response to environmental factors, thereby conserving the cells energy[3]. Genes in an operon are thus either transcribed together or not at all, such as the lac operon in E. coli that is used to hydrolyse lactose into glucose and galactose. This genes are thoroughly studied because of the positive activator (allolactose) and negative activator of the gene.

References

  1. Encyclopedia Britannica, Operon. Available at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/429974/operon
  2. Lodish, Harvey; Zipursky, Lawrence; Matsudaira, Paul; Baltimore, David; Darnel, James (2000). "Chapter 9: Molecular Definition of a Gene". Molecular Cell Biology. W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-3136-2
  3. ↑ Encyclopedia Britannica, Operon. Available at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/429974/operon
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