Organelles are separate compartments in eukaryotic cells that contain different enzymes and molecules and have specific roles in maintaining cell structure and function . Each organelle has its own membrane in the form of a lipid bilayer, this allows compartmentalisation and segragation of different chemical activites. Different organelles can be seperated by centrifugation due to thier varying densities.
Eukaryotic Organelles and their Functions:
- Ribosomes - host sites for protein synthesis: translation of mRNA into proteins.
- Nucleus - contains chromosomes as a store of genetic information.
- Nuclear envelope - surrounds the nucleus, allows passage of material into and out of the nucleus. Eg mRNA
- Rough ER (endoplasmic reticulum) - located next to the nucleus, the rough ER has docked ribosomes for protein synthesis.
- Smooth ER - endoplasmic reticulum without docked ribosomes - synthesis of lipids and steroids
- Lysosome - contain hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular degredation
- Endosomes - sort endocytosed materials
- Golgi Body - post-transcriptional modification, separation and assortment of newly synthesised proteins
- Peroxisomes - contain enzymes for oxidation of toxins
- Mitochondria - powerhouse of the cell that plays a key role in aerobic cell respiration
- Cytoskeleton - Important role in cell movement and cell division 
- ↑ Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P. 2008. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 5th Edition. p695. Garland Science, New York
- ↑ Becker's World of the CellfckLRHardin, J. et al. (2012) Becker's World of the Cell. 8th ed. San Francisco: Pearson, p.253.
- ↑ Becker's World of the Cell Hardin, J. et al. (2012) Becker's World of the Cell. 8th ed. San Francisco: Pearson, p.422.