Oxidative phosphorylation

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Oxidative phosphorylation is one of the ATP generating processes in the cell. Understanding of this operation is based on chemiosmotic hypothesis (or Mitchell hypothesis) which clarifies how the free energy from electron transport chain across the inner mitochondrial membrane is used to produce ATP.<ref>Pamela C.Champe, Richard A.Harvey, Denise r.Ferrier (2008) Biochemistry 4th edition. United States of America: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins</ref>  
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Oxidative phosphorylation is one of the [[ATP|ATP]] generating processes in the [[Cell|cell]]. Understanding of this operation is based on [[Chemiosmotic hypothesis|chemiosmotic hypothesis]] (or [[Mitchell hypothesis|Mitchell hypothesis]]) which clarifies how the free energy from [[Electron transport chain|electron transport chain]] across the inner [[Mitochondria|mitochondrial]] membrane is used to produce [[ATP|ATP]]&nbsp;<ref>Pamela C.Champe, Richard A.Harvey, Denise r.Ferrier (2008) Biochemistry 4th edition. United States of America: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins</ref>.
  
Mitochondrial inner membrane is embedded with four electron transferring complexes which work together as electron transport chain. Each complex is adapted to accept, oxidize and pass electrons to the next carrier of the chain. Main electron donors are NADH or FAD(2H). Firstly electrons from NADH are transported by complex I (NADH dehydrogenase), then CoQ (coanzyme Q), complex III (cytochrome b-c1 complex), cytochrome c, and complex IV (cytochrome oxydase). While electrons are transferring, the same complexes works as proton pumps and pump protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space where electrochemical potential gradient (Δp) are created. This gradient generates energy essential for ATP synthesis to be driven. Δp stimulates protons to reenter into the mitochondrial matrix through ATP synthase, which forms ATP from ADP and Pi<ref>biochemistry</ref><br>
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[[Mitochondria|Mitochondrial]] inner membrane is embedded with four electron transferring complexes which work together as electron transport chain. Each complex is adapted to accept, oxidize and pass electrons to the next carrier of the chain. Main electron donors are [[NADH|NADH]] or [[FAD(2H)|FAD(2H)]]. Firstly electrons from NADH are transported by complex I ([[NADH dehydrogenase|NADH dehydrogenase]]), then CoQ ([[coenzyme Q|coenzyme Q]]), complex III (cytochrome b-c1 complex), [[Cytochrome c|cytochrome c]], and complex IV ([[Cytochrome oxidase|cytochrome oxidase]]). While electrons are transferring, the same complexes works as proton pumps and pump protons from the [[Mitochondria matrix |mitochondrial matrix ]]to the intermembrane space where [[Electrochemical potential gradient|electrochemical potential gradient]] (Δp) are created. This gradient generates energy essential for [[ATP|ATP]] synthesis to be driven. Δp stimulates protons to reenter into the mitochondrial matrix through [[ATP synthase|ATP synthase]], which forms [[ATP|ATP]] from [[ADP|ADP]] and Pi&nbsp;<ref>Michael Lieberman, Allan D.Marks, Colleen Smith (2007)Marks' ESSENTIALS of Medical Biochemistry A Clinical Approach. United States of America:Lippincott Williams and Wilkins</ref>.
  
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=== References  ===
  
<references />Pamela C.Champe, Richard A.Harvey, Denise r.Ferrier (2008) Biochemistry 4th edition. United States of America: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
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<references />&nbsp;

Latest revision as of 18:20, 8 January 2011

Oxidative phosphorylation is one of the ATP generating processes in the cell. Understanding of this operation is based on chemiosmotic hypothesis (or Mitchell hypothesis) which clarifies how the free energy from electron transport chain across the inner mitochondrial membrane is used to produce ATP [1].

Mitochondrial inner membrane is embedded with four electron transferring complexes which work together as electron transport chain. Each complex is adapted to accept, oxidize and pass electrons to the next carrier of the chain. Main electron donors are NADH or FAD(2H). Firstly electrons from NADH are transported by complex I (NADH dehydrogenase), then CoQ (coenzyme Q), complex III (cytochrome b-c1 complex), cytochrome c, and complex IV (cytochrome oxidase). While electrons are transferring, the same complexes works as proton pumps and pump protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space where electrochemical potential gradient (Δp) are created. This gradient generates energy essential for ATP synthesis to be driven. Δp stimulates protons to reenter into the mitochondrial matrix through ATP synthase, which forms ATP from ADP and Pi [2].

References

  1. Pamela C.Champe, Richard A.Harvey, Denise r.Ferrier (2008) Biochemistry 4th edition. United States of America: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
  2. Michael Lieberman, Allan D.Marks, Colleen Smith (2007)Marks' ESSENTIALS of Medical Biochemistry A Clinical Approach. United States of America:Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

 

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