Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are chemical modifications made to proteins that regulate activity, localization and interaction of proteins with other cellular molecules. It has been discovered that the human genome comprises of 20-25,000 genes however it is estimated that the human proteome comprises of over 1 million proteins. PTMs make it possible for a single gene to encode multiple proteins and is therefore the key to proteome complexity. Some of the most prevalent PTMs are phosphorylation, ubiquitination, glycosylation, s-nitrosylation and acetylation.
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