A proteasome is a developed protease, notably involved in the degradation and eradication of proteins deemed by the cell to be unnecessary, thus being essential in ensuring that all proteins maintain a high quality. Moreover, proteasomes control cell-cycle progression and apoptosis which act as a crucial target in anti-cancer therapy.
As stated in the paper of Peters, et al., 1994: 'Proteasomes are very large protein complexes found in some of the living organisms'. and differ from normal proteases owing to compartmentalisation and isolation of certain cell features. They constitute 'nearly 1% of cell protein' and are completely reliant on ATP. When a protein is incompletely folded (usually owing to a lack of aid from a molecular chaperone), it is then marked by a 'protein rescue' mechanism which is able to recognise it's 'abnormally exposed hydrophobic patch' allowing it to then be destroyed by the proteasome. This mechanism usually involves 'ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and therefore is known as the ubiquitin-proteasome system'.
- ↑ The proteasome: structure, function, and role in the cell. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12738238. 2003 May;29 Suppl 1:3-9
- ↑ Peters, Jan-Michael; Franke, Werner W.; Kleinschmidt, Jiirgen A. (March 1994). "Distinct 19 S and 20 S subcomplexes of the 26 S proteasome and their distribution in the nucleus and the cytoplasm". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 269 (10): 7709–18. PMID 8125997
- ↑ Albert B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Morgan D, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P., 'Molecular Biology of the Cell'. 6th Ed, Abingdon: Garland Science, Taylor and; Francis Group, LLC, 2015.
- ↑ Nassif, Nicholas D., Cambray, Samantha E., Kraut, Daniel A.,'Slipping up: Partial substrate degradation by ATP-dependent proteases'IUBMB Life 66(5): 309–317, 2014